Nobody downloaded yet

Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acidinduced Cell Activation - Lab Report Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Schwandner R, Dziarsk R, Wesche, Rothe M, Kirschning C J. (1999) Peptidoglycan- and Lipoteichoic Acid-induced Cell Activation is mediated by toll-like Receptor 2 Journal of Biological Chemistry 274: 17406-17409.
Infection of a host cell with bacteria can result in the fatal condition known as septic shock or blood poisoning…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.5% of users find it useful
Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acidinduced Cell Activation
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acidinduced Cell Activation"

Download file to see previous pages This can eventually lead to sepsis (Alberts et al 2002a). Previous work showed that in Gram negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPN), a component of the outer membrane, activated a cell's immune response in this manner. It interacted with the Toll-like receptors types 2 and 4 (TLR2 and TLR4) present on host cell membranes (Kirschning et al 1998, Poltorak et al 1998, Quereshi et al 1999). The authors in this paper demonstrate how the components of Gram positive bacterial cell membranes stimulate cell activation through TLR2.
The invasion of an organism's blood stream with bacteria often results in sepsis. Invasive bacteria will activate the host cell's immune system. Sepsis results from the inability of the immune system to limit bacterial spread during an infection. The inhibitory mechanisms controlling inflammation are over-ridden by the huge bacterial load on the cell. Inflammation during sepsis will then develop into a systemic syndrome with a number of clinical symptoms such as tissue injury, increased vascular permeability, dilation of blood vessels, loss of plasma volume and blood clotting, and, eventually, multi-organ failure and shock (Alberts et al 2002b, Decker 2004)).
Initially bacteria bind to host cell membranes and this stimulates the systemic release of cytokines and other inflammatory signalling molecules into the blood. (Alberts et al 2002b). ...
The mechanism for Gram negative bacterial mediated activation of the cell's immune response has been well documented (Alberts et al 2002). LPN within the bacterial cell wall binds to LPN binding protein present in serum and this complex in turn binds to the CD14 receptor (figure 4). The CD14 receptor is either soluble in serum or tethered to the host cell membrane through a GPI (glycophosphatidylinositol) anchor. Either way the CD14 receptor does not have an intracellular domain so it cannot transmit its signalling messages intracellularly. This observation suggested that another "co-receptor" acted in conjunction with the CD14 receptor to allow the transmission of an extracellular signal to the inside of the cell. The Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have an intracellular domain linking to the IL-1 signalling pathway. The Toll-like receptor acts to phosphorylate a cascade of kinases TRAF6, TAK-1, IKK and eventually the transcription factor NFB. NFB then translocates to the nucleus where it activates the transcription of a number of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses (Alberts et al 2002a, figure 5). In Gram negative bacteria the Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 has been shown to be intrinsic in cell activation (Kirschning et al 1998, Poltorak et al 1998, Quereshi et al 1999).

In this paper the authors attempted to determine if components isolated from Gram positive bacteria activated cells in a TLR dependent manner. HEK293 cells were transfected with a number of Toll-like receptors alongside a luciferase reporter gene. A NFB transcription element was placed upstream of the luciferase reporter gene, such that activaiton of NFB would initiate transcription of luciferase. When luciferase ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acidinduced Cell Activation Lab Report”, n.d.)
Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acidinduced Cell Activation Lab Report. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/science/1505061-peptidoglycan-and-lipoteichoic-acidinduced-cell-activation
(Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acidinduced Cell Activation Lab Report)
Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acidinduced Cell Activation Lab Report. https://studentshare.org/science/1505061-peptidoglycan-and-lipoteichoic-acidinduced-cell-activation.
“Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acidinduced Cell Activation Lab Report”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/science/1505061-peptidoglycan-and-lipoteichoic-acidinduced-cell-activation.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Bacterial cells Quantification
Bacterial cell quantification can be done in several ways, but this experiment will be using a spectrophotometer to measure the relationship between the bacterial cell concentration and the absorbance of light. Results using known concentrations are often used to find the cell count of an unknown solution, and this is what will be achieved here.
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report
Staphylococcus and streptococcus
Culturing was both on agar and broth media incubated at 37 o c and 25 o c. The biochemical tests were: Glucose fermentation, sucrose fermentation, Lactose fermentation, Maltose fermentation, Starch hydrolysis, Citrate utilization, Catalase test, Tryptophan digestion (Indole).The most probable bacteria were Bacillus spp which includes C.Tetani, C.
4 Pages(1000 words)Lab Report
Microbiology lab report
It is highly imperative to classify bacteria and to identify microorganisms as they have enough potential to cause various diseases. Essentially, identification process is highly pragmatic for the correct diagnosis and treatment. Identification of the bacteria provides line of treatment.
3 Pages(750 words)Lab Report
A functional DyneinMicrotubule Network Is Required for NGF signaling through the Rap1MAPK pathway
NTs have been proven to be essential to the survival and proper function of the neurons by the works of many studies such as that of Campenot and MacInnis (2004) which have identified that the absence of NTs results to destruction of the cell body.
3 Pages(750 words)Lab Report
The effects of salt solution on frog skin cell
The frog skin is composed of two layers (epidermis and dermis), is permeable to water and respiratory gases ( O2 and CO2 ) and ions such as Na+ and Cl-. The outermost layer
3 Pages(750 words)Lab Report
Cell biology
A microscope has very many parts that play major roles in the magnification of specimen. These parts are build together to ensure that they work together to achieve magnification. The microscope has two systems of lenses which are known as the ocular and the objective lens
10 Pages(2500 words)Lab Report
Cell Biol- Genetics practical lab report
This was achieved through fractionating the liver cells into three different components: the supernatant, liver particulate and lysed liver particulate. MDH was localised primarily in the lysed liver particulate, while LDH was mainly localised within the supernatant
6 Pages(1500 words)Lab Report
Crystal Violate activation of energy
The reaction of oxygen and cellulose is spontaneous, but initiation of combustion is required by addition of activation energy from the lit match. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the reaction of sodium hydroxide with crystal
2 Pages(500 words)Lab Report
Cell Fractionation and Mitochondrial Function
cleus; what does not sediment at this speed is then placed in a clean tube and spun at a higher speed to separate out the next-larger particles – in this case, the mitochondria. The particles which have sediments, forms a pellet in the bottom of the tube (or on the lower side
2 Pages(500 words)Lab Report
Nitric Oxide Production in Cytokine Activated Macrophages
Simulation of the macrophages with the cytokines such as IFN-γ, IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-β, IL-6, and TNF-α, which are secreted during various processes of immune responses, result in synthesis of NO (NOS). NOS causes the macrophages to become cytotoxic
5 Pages(1250 words)Lab Report
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Lab Report on topic Peptidoglycan and Lipoteichoic Acidinduced Cell Activation for FREE!
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us