Nobody downloaded yet

Science and Scientific Change - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
In this paper, I shall focus on Thomas Kuhn and Karl Popper’s analysis of science and scientific change. The philosophy of science offers a critique of science and shows us how science might not be as superior as we’ve always thought it to be. …
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER95.3% of users find it useful
Science and Scientific Change
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Science and Scientific Change"

Download file to see previous pages I regard Kuhn’s contribution to the field as one of the most important, not because I think he’s correct, but because it radically changed the way people think about the nature and purpose of science. Before Kuhn, philosophers generally regarded science as a rational and logical enterprise, with strict standards that guaranteed objectivity. What Kuhn shows, in his The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1970), is that science, as well as scientific change, is not as rational as we think. Scientists themselves are guided not by a set of objective principles, but by their personal interests and values as much as anything else.
Many philosophers and scientists have criticized Kuhn for portraying scientific change as an irrational process, one of them being Imre Lakatos. In this paper, I shall focus on the debate between Kuhn and Popper, as emphasized by Lakatos in his Falsification and The Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes.
I shall divide this paper into four main parts: the first part will discuss Popper’s views on science and scientific change. Part two will be devoted to Thomas Kuhn’s analysis of the irrationality of science and paradigm shifts. The third part will synthesize the Popperian and Kuhnian debate. Here I will introduce Lakatos’ critique against Kuhn. Finally, I shall end my paper with my conclusion regarding the said issue at hand.
Karl Popper What is the main difference between scientific theories and non-scientific theories? This is often referred to as the demarcation problem, which asks, what criterion can we use to distinguish scientific claims from non-scientific claims? What demarcates science from non-science? This is Karl Popper’s most renowned contribution. Yet what solution did Popper offer to his said problem? Popper’s solution to the demarcation problem is really quite simple. He says that what distinguishes scientific claims from non-scientific ones is its falsifiability. Thus, a hypothesis is scientific if and only if there is some way in which it can be falsified by means of some experiment. If we cannot construct an experiment, which can potentially falsify a hypothesis, then the hypothesis, even if meaningful, is really not scientific. In line with these two theories that are foundational to Popper’s philosophy, it is clear that Popper views science as a rational enterprise, where theory-change is characterized by scientific progress. According to Popper, science changes through a two-step cycle. Stage one is conjecture, and the second stage is attempted refutation. Under the stage of conjecture, a theory is proposed as an attempt to solve the problem at hand. The theory is then put to test by attempted refutations. Attempted refutation occurs when “the hypothesis is subjected to critical testing, in an attempts to show that it is false” (Godfrey-Smith 61). Moreover, Popper notes that after the hypothesis is refuted, the process repeats again starting from a new conjecture, and so on and so forth. If the theory is corroborated, then it is temporarily accepted as un-refuted, but not justified. What is important to take note of here is that as the process ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Science and Scientific Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Science and Scientific Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words)
“Science and Scientific Change Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
Post WWII UK science policy and theories of change in science policy - Outline the main features of UK science policy in the dif
Various strategic changes in the science policy were observed during the Thatcher administration. One of the key aims of the Thatcher government was to provide a social environment with minimum possible, moderation on the activities of private industry.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Analysis and investigation of situations led to formulation of concepts and political theories. The systemized study of literature related
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Theories on the History of Science as Social Constructs
e other topic that takes into consideration, the writer Hess and his described terms of technototemism, reconstruction and also finds his theories related to these terms. The essay also finds out the association between science and technology to other parts of society. After
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
Scientific Method Applied to Forensic Science Paper
Forensic science is merely the submission of the scientific method to solving mysteries and criminal investigations, such as those involved with crime scenes that do not
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
What was the scientific revolution all about How did this major transition change overall lifestyle
Scientific revolution began in Europe where majority of world’s famous scientists originated. The first development was marked by the introduction of books from Nicolas Copernicus
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Politics of climate change science and its uses and abuses
He identifies that climate change and global warming is actually happening and that politic play a big role on the freedom of the scientists to carry out their work. He identifies with Galileo
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Scientific Revolutions: A Historical Perspective
criticised Aristotle, who is the epitome of the antiquity learning methods, for using the wrong scientific methods in his inquiry on truth (Lindbergh, 1999). Bacon was of the view that that the antiquity Aristotelian scientific method was wrong because of its reliance on logic,
13 Pages(3250 words)Essay
Climate Change Beliefs, Scientific Literacy, and Cultural Values
On the other hand, the CCT hypothesis notes that people often derive perceptions about societal risks of climate change on the basis of the knowledge of their cultural values. In other words, there is a conflict of interest between the
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
A comparison of Depression in Adults from a natural scientific approach and a Humanistic science approach
Major forms of depression include major depression, dysthymic disorder, Psychotic depression, Bipolar disorder, bipolar depression and seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Major depression can prevent the patient from functioning normally; it undermine
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Why do the scientific community and the public have different views about the nature and validity of global climate change
The Climategate transpired at the end of the year 2009, and it has not been free of controversy and disagreement. It was chiefly characterised by the exposure of more than thousand private emails relating to global warming, which
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic Science and Scientific Change for FREE!
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us