Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Animals as source for human organ transplants - Case Study Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
This procedure is known as xenotransplantation, which has increased over the last few years since it is seen as one way of minimizing human…
Download full paper File format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER97.4% of users find it useful
Animals as source for human organ transplants
Read Text Preview

Extract of sample "Animals as source for human organ transplants"

Animals as Source for Human Organ Transplants Scientists have made several attempts of transplanting animal tissues or organs into human beings since the beginning of 20th century. This procedure is known as xenotransplantation, which has increased over the last few years since it is seen as one way of minimizing human organ shortage for transplantation. It is noted that, at present, this shortage to a great extent limits the transplantation potential for treating human disease (Patel and Rushefsky 103). However, the prospects of using tissue and organs from animals for xenotransplantation continue to raise a lot of issue from various squatters both practical and ethical. The issue mainly relates to problems associated with xenotransplantation. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the problems raised and discuss whether the problems raised concern me or not. The paper will also explain the main ethical approach groupings that are most influential in my thinking about the case and the consequences most important to me regarding the case.
Xenotransplantation prospect is associated with public health issues. It is reported that xenotransplantation is capable of transferring some risks to the wider society (Patel and Rushefsky 103). The major concern is that xenotransplantation is capable of transmitting infectious agents, like viruses from animals to human beings. It is noted that retroviruses are the major concerns since there exist several examples of such viruses moving from one species and becoming infectious in another.
It is also noted that retroviruses fails to show signs of the disease at its initial stages (Institute of Medicine 42). Therefore, in case transplant patients become infected with a retrovirus, then the virus would be capable of spreading to the patient’s family, close contacts, carers and the entire population before it can be established that the infection has occurred (McLean and Williamson 43).
The widespread introduction of xenotransplantation has cost implications to the health care system. Opponents of Xenotransplantation argue that the procedure would displace other methods, which are perhaps more worthwhile (McLean and Williamson 43). Therefore, the procedure should not be embraced. Institute of Medicine note that the argument is based on the fact that survival rate for xenograft recipients has been poor (42). As such, early recipients are the one being used as subjects of experiment for this technological development.
Some of the issues raised with regard to the case concern me while others do not. The ones that concern me most are those which touch on human life. Human health is paramount in my view and should not be compromised. Therefore, my other concern pertains to the fact that xenotransplantation is capable of transferring infections to the community. This means that if a patient is treated through a xenotransplantation and happens to get infected in the community then the entire population may end up having the infection. This is an issue of concern and must be looked at before accepting this prospect of xenotransplantation. However, I would not be bothered much about the problem of cost to the health care system as long as the results would bring positive change in the health care system.
My thinking about this case is mainly guided by the consequential ethical approach. This is mainly because the issue touches on human life. Therefore, any procedure that is carried on the human being should lead to a better result for both the patient and the general population. It is, therefore, important that the consequences of xenotransplantation be considered by doing more research on the procedure before it can be embraced to ensure that all the negative consequences are eliminated.
My Important Moral Convictions
Ethical deliberation does not happen in a vacuum but in historical and social context that is changing continuously. In this regard, there are no timeless solutions since ethical debate cannot be separated from the social life domain. Similarly, individual’s moral convictions are not merely pegged in the traditional forces but are the results of mature and sincere reflections.
Work Cited
Institute of Medicine (US). Xenotransplantation: Science, Ethics, and Public Policy. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 1996 Print.
McLean, Sheila & Williamson, Laura. Xenotransplantation: Law and Ethics. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2005 Print.
Patel, Kant, & Rushefsky, Mark. Health Care Policy in an Age of New Technologies. New York: M.E Sharpe. 2002 Print. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Animals as source for human organ transplants Case Study”, n.d.)
Animals as source for human organ transplants Case Study. Retrieved from
(Animals As Source for Human Organ Transplants Case Study)
Animals As Source for Human Organ Transplants Case Study.
“Animals As Source for Human Organ Transplants Case Study”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Animals as source for human organ transplants

China probes tourists' illegal organ transplants

...?China probes tourists' illegal organ transplants Due to Second highest human organ transplant rate, the trade of organs is banned in China since May2007.Every year 5000 operations are held for transplant and it is stated illegal for the foreigners as one million Chinese need transplant every year but due to sever shortage, the available donors are only 10%. According to a newspaper, authorities investigated 17 tourists, receiving an organ transplant in China (Beijing (AP)). Doctors and medical institution would face consequences. Under ground organ trade flourishes in China, due to anxious organ transplant seekers who make 40% of the market. The organs are arranged in weeks rather than months. Only 160 institutions are licensed to do...
5 Pages (1250 words) Research Paper

Organ Transplants

... relatives or individuals with whom they have personal relationships (Nathan,, 2003). Recently dead or dying donors are often preferred donors because there is less controversy in donating their organs. Adequate tests can be carried out on their organs and these tests and procedures can be carried out with minimal risks on both the donors and the recipients. Proposals to resolve the limited supply of human organs for transplantation have been forwarded; but most of these proposals have focused on increasing the supply of organs, not on decreasing the demand for these organs (Nathan,, 2003). One of the new techniques for addressing this issue have been related to the increase of supply of only the better quality organs. One...
6 Pages (1500 words) Research Paper

The Ethical Choice: In Favor of Organ Transplants

Of course, organ donations are received in many ways. Sometimes people pass away due to an accident and wish to have their remaining organs donated. Other people die of natural causes and wish that their organs and corpse be dedicated to medical science. Yet, still, there are other people who are living donors—who are alive but choose, for whatever reason, to donate one of their vital organs to another human being. Whatever the reason, it will be argued here that organ donation is an ethically sound choice to make, for the following rationale: organ donation saves human lives; organ donation is utilitarian; and organ donation can turn a negative situation into a positive one. II. Organ Donation Saves Human Lives People may be opp...
5 Pages (1250 words) Research Paper

Organ Transplants

... be a human being or any other animal) giving the organ to be transplanted is referred to as the donor while the organism who is receiving the new organ is termed as the recipient. The procedure involved in obtaining the organ from the donor and transferring it to the recipient requires high technical knowhow and swift operation with the main goal of saving life of the two parties. With the inception of this science there has been a steady rise in emerging issues that if not looked into is likely to erase its effectiveness and reliability. Discussion A lot of resources were put in research and development to revolutionize health sector and organ transplant in particular. Before this concept, most victims who developed various organ failures...
4 Pages (1000 words) Research Paper

Commercialization of organ transplants

This however has resulted in the emergence of a heated debate with some people supporting this move while others strongly opposing it. This scenario has been brought about by ethical issues which surround the entire process of the organ transplant and their respective sale. This paper will seeks to expound upon both side of the debate and highlight why commercialization of transplants should be discouraged. To start with, the organs under transplant are priceless and in most cases are donated as a humane gesture. They are a gift from our creator that were never commercially acquired. This however has been countered by the proponents of commercialization that being reliant on altruism to acquire these organs has resulted in failur...
3 Pages (750 words) Essay

Commercialization of Organ Transplants

...? Introduction: Advances in medicine have resulted to raised concerns about the availability of body organs that can be used for transplantation. This is because human body organs are limited in supply. There are a variety of suggestions developed for purposes of solving the shortage of body organs for transplantation. One such suggestion is the commercialization of human organs. This paper is a report that discusses the arguments that support the commercial of body organs, and arguments that are against it. This report also has my position regarding the commercialization issues, and my position is that it is unethical to commercialize donation of body organs. In explaining my position, this paper uses utilitarian theory of ethics...
3 Pages (750 words) Essay

Organ Transplants

... 11 September Organ Transplants Cause Inequalities within Societies Introduction The very prospect of buying, selling or donating body parts appears to be repulsive and indignant. However, one may argue on the other hand that premature death that could have been averted by receiving an organ is also against the dignity of human life. The question now is not whether organ transplantation is against human dignity, but rather how it can affect human lives and societies. This is because organ transplantation is in such great demand that there is a thriving black market to meet the growing demand and counteract the low supplies obtained via organ donations. If the black market is analyzed, it is seen that most of the sellers are poor while...
7 Pages (1750 words) Essay

Commercialization of Organ Transplants

... (Thomas). George M. Abouna claims that “organ sale has serious negative impact on all aspects and on everyone involved in the process of transplantation…” (2001, p. 63) To begin with, commercialization will turn human organs into commodities. It has already been done to certain renewable parts of human body, such as blood, sperm, hair and so on. Moreover, bone marrow tissue can now be sold in the US for about $3,000 (Park). But what about vital irreplaceable organs? Nowadays, there is a certain system of criteria, following which available organs are allocated between all patients. It includes geographical location of a donor and a recipient, blood group compatibility, age of a recipient and urgency. But if buying organs is legalized...
5 Pages (1250 words) Assignment

Commercialization of organ transplants

... tends to be put in the background because of the benefits that they are likely to receive (Budiani-Saberi and Delmonico 925). Those who are against the commercialisation of organ transplants believe that it cheapens the worth of human beings because individuals come to look upon their organs as commodities which can be used for the sake of gaining money rather than as basic parts of their bodies. Moreover, might make it possible for there to be a rise in organ trafficking because cartels will get involved in the business which will mean that certain individuals will donate their kidneys whether they like it or not. Therefore, the commercialisation of organ transplants is a new area in the medical field whose consequences have...
4 Pages (1000 words) Essay

Problems of Human Activities

... activities such as cutting down trees, lighting campfires and not putting them out properly after use, casually tossed cigarette butts, lighting fireworks, discharging of firearms, scattering broken glass and chain- saws that cause damage and spoil the natural ecosystem. Poaching or hunting is another human activity that threatens to make certain species of animals, birds and reptiles extinct. a) Deserts: Deserts are the world’s most harsh, spectacular and beautiful habitats with specialized but fragile eco- systems that support or house a unique and specialized diversity of flora and fauna. Due to their highly specialized nature, the species that live there, are essentially vulnerable to even the slightest disturbance in their habitat...
7 Pages (1750 words) Term Paper

Issues Connected to Human Resources Management

Notably, management professionals would agree, HRM system is an integration of various management practices with ‘people’ at its prime focus (Jackson, Schuler & Werner, 2008); and, the common factor between business organisations and educational institutions is ‘people,’ although their goals differ. This could be one main reason for attempting to implement HRM in educational institutions, although it is customized to organisational benefit.

Halachmi’s (2002a) extensive analysis on performance measurement clearly indicates the need for performance measurement in order to achieve the goals; and, it, in turn, establishes targets aligned to organisational goals and expectations; makes evalu...
8 Pages (2000 words) Assignment

Evaluation of the Role of Human Networks in Knowledge Creation and Knowledge Sharing Within Patni

The extensive literature review has been undertaken to justify the actions of Patni and to appreciate its initiatives that enhance employee participation. The steps taken by this Indian IT giant in institutionalizing organizational learning have been discussed largely from the perspective of human resource management and it has also been discussed as to how knowledge generation takes place within the organization.

This report will aim at critically evaluating the role of human networks in knowledge creation and knowledge sharing within Patni Computer Systems Ltd. (Patni). For this purpose, an extensive literature review will be undertaken and various theories pertaining to human resource management will be made use of....
6 Pages (1500 words) Case Study

Perspectives of Human Thought in Visual Arts

The different cultural expressions that are located within art are designed to create a specific expression for the art that is used.  This connects throughout time to create a universal expression that can be understood within the visual arts.  While each of these is based in a different medium and has specific techniques used for a certain time period, there is also a connection with the cultural and human experiences that are linked within this. The common function that is used in both of these is to create a perception of human thoughts for the culture of the time. This is achieved by using specific techniques and contrasts to achieve the end goal of identifying the thoughts of a time period.

The painting...
7 Pages (1750 words) Coursework

Scientific Management and Human Relations Approach

For many years, a huge number of experts (Donnelly, pp. 24-33, 2008) have been trying to define the term management; however, analysis has indicated that management is itself a vast terminology that constitutes various aspects of an organization. For some, management is something that involves people. For some experts, management is an art that includes strokes that incline individuals to perform the required tasks in an efficient manner. Due to such a broad scope of management, until now, one can come across various management theories that propose different and diverse methodologies to manage people in an organization, such as classical theory, neo-classical theory, behavioral management theory, etc. As earlier mentioned, this p...
6 Pages (1500 words) Assignment

The Role of Human Resource Management

Positivism is a scientific method of inquiry-based on facts rather than on opinions and attitudes. In positivism, there is a belief that the world exists externally and that the objective method of measurement should be used. This implies that only knowledge that is measurable is “valid” and hence the epistemology of positivism is connected with quantitative methods of research. Interpretivism is the qualitative approach through which it is possible to understand the subjective reality. Through interpretivism, it would be possible to make sense of the data collected and achieve the goals of the research.

Any research is a methodical study on a particular subject, which uses facts and figures. The research st...
10 Pages (2500 words) Assignment

Human Development Index and Gross Domestic Product

The most recognized growth indicators of a nation have been GDP. Since HDI is a composite statistic gathered from data on life expectancy, education and GDP per capita, which are measured in three separate units, it faces serious criticisms. This project is meant to highlight the criticisms faced by HDI being used as an indicator of economic development against GDP, which has been so far the most widely used indicator of economic development. But it also takes the other aspects like, life expectancy at birth, literacy rates and living standards which are not considered by the growth index.

“Human Development Index is a summary measure of human development. It measures the average achievements in a country in three...
7 Pages (1750 words) Coursework

Is the Optional Protocol to the Rights of Child an Instrument of Human Rights or an Instrument of Humanitarian Law

The Optional Protocol is an amendment to an earlier Convention, the Convention on the Rights of the Child. This earlier convention states that children younger than 15 may not take a direct part in hostilities and that children younger than 15 may not be drafted into military service. (Convention on the Rights of the Child, pp. 10-11). Therefore, the Optional Protocol essentially amends Article 38 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, raising the age from 15 to 18 on the matters of direct involvement in hostilities and being conscripted into service.

The Optional Protocol and Article 38 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child were necessitated by the fact that children participate in conflicts directly by b...
10 Pages (2500 words) Term Paper

A Developmentally-Appropriate and Integrated Preschool Curriculum on Animals

Its emphasis is not solely on academic activities, which would consequently overlook other areas of development that are likewise significant. Moreover, a child-centered program becomes meaningful when it draws from the children’s needs and learning styles, life experiences, interests, and ideas (Brewer, 2001). An integrated curriculum consists of a number of strategies that can be applied to deepen meaningfulness and support conceptual development (Bredekamp and Rosegrant, 1992). An integrated curriculum allows the young child to perceive the world around him more clearly. Furthermore, it provides opportunities for in-depth exploration of a topic and learning that has thorough coverage. It provides more choices on how to pr...
8 Pages (2000 words) Assignment

Training and Development from a Human Resource Management Perspective

The last section will discuss my personal recommendation with regard to specific changes in the use of HR theories and work-related practices. My overall experience during the internship training period was fun and challenging.

During the first week of the training period, I managed to develop useful research survey questionnaires and research aids which enabled me to gather information needed for the development of a training plan for the fitness instructors.

Designing an effective training instruction plan that will address the main concerns of the students is the most challenging part of the internship. Using the ADDIE model, I plan to design a training instruction material by integrating the research sur...
30 Pages (7500 words) Thesis
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Case Study on topic Animals as source for human organ transplants for FREE!

Contact Us