Brain Functions in Depression - Coursework Example

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The increasing number of antidepressant users proves that depression is on the rise. This paper uses theories of depression to illustrate the causes of depression from a Biopsychology issue. These arguments will show the functions of the brain and the changes due to depression…
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Brain Functions in Depression
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Download file to see previous pages Different approaches illustrate various causes of depression. Pathophysiology of depression suggests that depression is due to disturbances in the brain’s central nervous system (CNS) where neurotransmitters, for instance, serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine are affected. The role of CNS serotonin activity is acting as a major depressive disorder that limits the efficacy of selective re-uptake inhibitors. Serotonergic neurons implicated in affective disorders are found in the dorsal raphe nucleus, the limbic system, and the left prefrontal cortex. Vascular lesions also contribute to depression since they disrupt the neural networks that are involved in emotional regulation (Farooqui, 2010).
Depression, mainly affects the limbic circuitry where the hippocampus and amygdala are found. The functional neuroimaging studies support that depression is due to decrease metabolic activities in neocortical structures, therefore increasing metabolic activity of the limbic structures. The need to determine the part of the brain that is abnormal during depression led to scientists and neurologists use positron emission tomographic images (PET). They discovered that the prefrontal cortex had abnormally diminished activity with patients suffering from unipolar depression and bipolar depression (Farooqui, 2010). This region controls emotional responses and connects to other areas of the brain.
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