An achievement in mathematics, gives an individual an upper hand in acquiring a job than those who may have failed in this subject. However, many individuals have poor performance in mathematics because they are anxious when…
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tudy conducted by Baloglu and Kocak (2005) found Math anxiety as a condition in which individuals experience negative effect when engaging in tasks that demand numerical and mathematical skills. Therefore, math anxiety can be described as a negative attitude towards mathematics and calculations of any kind.
A larger number of studies have supported that different gender, experience different levels of math anxiety. Two studies found that women tend to experience more anxiety than men (Bowd & Brady, 2003; Maloney et al., 2012). One study further says that math anxiety is negatively related to spatial processing ability, therefore, women on average have poorer spatial skills than men and are more likely to develop math anxiety (Maloney et al., 2012). On the other hand, a research found that men tend to be more anxious when dealing with basic mathematics such as division and multiplication than women (Balogu & Kocak, 2006). The difference can be examined in methodology of studies. While Balogu and Kocak (2006) used MARS-R and demographic information sheet to collect data, the other two studies used a different material to measure math anxiety.
Researchers have conducted several studies to find out the relationship between age and math anxiety; as the results, math anxiety in general score tends to be at a higher level in older students group compared to younger students group (Jameson & Fusco, 2014; Balogu & Kocak, 2006). A study supported that the older students get the lower self-efficacy associated with higher math anxiety (Jameson & Fusco, 2014). However, when it comes to analyzing the factors of math anxiety such as numerical task anxiety, the oldest student group tends to have lower anxiety than the youngest student group (Balogu & Kocak, 2006). The difference between two studies’ results may come from the method of measurement, such that Balogu and Kocak (2006) conducted their study with three different age groups while Jameson and Fusco (2014) classified
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