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Reaction 4 - Assignment Example

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It connects the hippocampus, prefrontal area, the septa nuclei, and medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus. These connections enable for the amygdale to play a…
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Structures and Neurotransmitters Responsible for Emotion Structures Amygdala: it is a little almond-shaped structure that is deep inside the antero-inferior region of the temporal lobe. It connects the hippocampus, prefrontal area, the septa nuclei, and medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus. These connections enable for the amygdale to play a crucial role on mediation as well as control of crucial affective activities including love, affection, friendship, and expression of mood, especially on rage, fear, and aggression. The structure, if triggered, it results in fear and anxiety leading the animal into a stage of alertness.
Hypothalamus: The structure is connected to other prosencephalic areas as well as the mesencephalus. The lateral parts of the hypothalamus are involved with rage, reward, arousal, and pleasure. In the same way, the median parts are responsible for displeasure, aversion, and a tendency to loud and uncontrollable laughing.
Cingulate sulcus: The structure is located in the brain’s medial side between the corpus callosum and cingulated sulcus. The frontal part is responsible for emotional reaction and regulation of aggressive behavior.
Cerebellum: Responsible for drugs abuse and orgasm (Holstege, et al., 9185).
Neurotransmitters
Serotonin: It affects the manner in which the brain responds to chemical changes in the body. According to Herbert, Herbert and Pauli (2948), serotonin affects depression, arousal, and mood. The undersupply of serotonin results in obsessive-compulsive disorder and problems with controlling anger, along with suicide. Majority of the depression medications, for instance, the newer generation antidepressants focus on increasing serotonin levels. Increased serotonin levels lead to lower depression levels. Among other symptoms, lower levels of serotonin results in poor sleep patterns and depressed mood.
Dopamine: High concentrations of dopamine are found in an area of the brain referred to as the basil ganglia. These are structures of the brain which make sure movement is smooth. Studies have demonstrated that imbalances in dopamine play major role in schizophrenia or dopamine hypotheses and even Parkinson’s disease. A reduction in Dopamine amount has been linked with depression. It has been found that drugs, such as, heroin, cocaine, and alcohol increase dopamine levels resulting in a ‘feel good’ state.
Norepinephrine: It is also known as noradrenaline. It controls alertness and awakeness. According to a view shared by (Kalat and Shiota 37), low levels of norepinephrine could result in depression.
Acetycholine: It has been found to affect mood, attention, and the REM of cycle of sleep. Acetycholine disruption occurs in the neuro-degenerative disease Alzheimer’s disease. There is a 90% loss of acetylcholine in the brains of persons suffering from Alzheimer’s. It is also involved in anger, wakefulness, and aggression.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid): It is an amajorihibitory neurotransmitter (Kalat and Shiota 65). Its undersupply is responsible for tremors, insomnia, and seizures.
Glutamate: It is toxic to the neurons and an excess often kills them. It is also associated with Alzheimer’s disease.
Endorphin: Opiate-like neurotransmitters associated with pain control and pleasure. In this regard, they assist explain good feelings like the ‘running-high,’ the painkilling effects of acupuncture as well as the indifference to pain in some of the severely injured persons (Herbert, Herbert and Pauli 2949)
In summary, the structures and neurotransmitters involved in emotions include GABA, glutamate, endorphin, acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, amygdale, hypothalamus, and the cingulate sulcus.
Works Cited
Herbert, C., B.M. Herbert and P. Pauli. "Emotional self-reference: brain structures involved in the processing of words describing ones own emotions." Neuropsychologia. 49.10 (2011): 2947-2956.
Holstege, G., Georgiadis, J., Paans, M., Meiners, C; Der-Graaf, H., and Reinders, A. "Brain activation during human male ejaculation," Journal of Neuroscience 23. 27(2011): 9185–9193.
Kalat, James and Michelle Shiota. Emotion. New York: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print. Read More
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