quora
Nobody downloaded yet

How does modaifnil work in the brain - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Modafinil [Institution] Modafinil Modafinil is a eugeroic that has been accepted by the FDA in 1998 as a treatment for numerous disorders such as shift work sleep disorders, enhanced daytime sleepiness and shift work sleep disorder (Saletu &Saletu-Zyhlarz, 2013, 231)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.9% of users find it useful
How does modaifnil work in the brain
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"How does modaifnil work in the brain"

Download file to see previous pages Side effects that are common in CNS stimulants but are not observed in Modafinil users include arterial hypertension and tachycardia. The absence of these effects has been widely attributed to the drug’s mechanism of action, though the exact principles of this yet to be established. The paper will focus on the positive effects of the drug and its pharmacokinetics on neural activity. There have been several theories formulated on the mechanism of neurostimuation by Modafinil. Among these include the histamine effect and the increment of the neurotransmitter dopamine by inhibiting its uptake therefore leaving sufficient amounts for transmission of neurosynaptic impulses. However, theories have suggested that the involvement of dopamine in this action is minimal; hence the different side effects (Saletu &Saletu-Zyhlarz, 2013, 231). The drug is also assumed to increase the availability of other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine. These mechanisms will be explained in detail in the following section. Among the numerous theories that have been formulated, one that is most indicative from the author’s research findings is the theory suggesting interaction and activity of Reticular Activating System neurons in the rhombencephalon with Modanifil (Rasetti et al., 2010, 2101-2109). These neurons have been found to be responsible for sustaining arousal levels in humans. The drug has a different impact on the RAS than other neurostimulators such as amphetamine and methylphenitade. Researchers have stated that effects of this drug on the above mentioned structures involve glutamate, hypocretin, ?-aminobutyric acid, norepinephrine, epinephrine, histamine and dopamine (Rasetti et al., 2010, 2101-2109). Modafinil has been found to increase the synthesis and release of norepinephrin by altering activity in the locus coeruleus to low tonic and high phasic (Volkow et al., 2009, 1148-1154). The drug possesses an agonistic effect on alpha 1 adrenergic receptors; hence it has a direct stimulatory effect resulting in the inhibition of norepinephrine uptake (Saletu &Saletu-Zyhlarz, 2013, 231). Therefore, this neurotransmitter is increased and has positive impacts on several centers of the brain promoting wakefulness. Some of the effects that occur as a result of increased norepinephrine include increased memory, cerebral plasticity and learning and attention. It also stimulates the Autonomic nervous system, particularly the sympathetic, and increases heart rate and blood pressure leading to enhanced levels of energy (Saletu &Saletu-Zyhlarz, 2013, 231). Another mechanism that has been suggested involves the elevation in histamine levels. This is due to the effect of Modafinil on receptors of neurons containing peptides which are known as orexins. Specifically these receptors are known as orexin 1 and 2 (Rasetti et al., 2010, 2101-2109). These neurons radiate to different parts of the cerebral cortex, and have been found to also influence centers of involved in sustaining arousal levels and wakefulness. These neurons have also been found to increase the level of neurotransmitters such as noradrenalin and dopamine in the above mentioned areas (Volkow et al., 2009, 1148-1154). The involvement of dopamine in the effects of Modafinil will be explained further in the paper. The above mentioned orexin neurons activated by Modafinil also affect and ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“How does modaifnil work in the brain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words”, n.d.)
How does modaifnil work in the brain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words. Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/biology/1490305-how-does-modaifnil-work-in-the-brain
(How Does Modaifnil Work in the Brain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words)
How Does Modaifnil Work in the Brain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words. https://studentshare.org/biology/1490305-how-does-modaifnil-work-in-the-brain.
“How Does Modaifnil Work in the Brain Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/biology/1490305-how-does-modaifnil-work-in-the-brain.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
How does Interferon work
Numerous researches and experiments are being undertaken to discover a cure for AIDS. An old drug that was used before now opens new possibilities in the treatment of this pandemic. This drug that resulted from biotechnology is derived from a naturally occurring protein in the body called interferon (Bardi par.1, 2, 4; Kallings, 218; Gallo).
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
The left brain vs. the right brain: How does this impact learning
Brain based learning is a term used to refer to the acceptance of the fact that the brain of different individuals process information in a different manner and instructions should be provided accordingly to facilitate learning (Duman, 2010, p.2080). One of the major topics of brain based learning is left brain versus right brain dominance and how this dominance impacts learning.
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
How Postmodernity effect my work(packaging design),how does it impact on my practice
Postmodernism and postmodernity are two philosophies that impacted the transition in the 21st and the accelerated growth the information age
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Critique analysis of scientific paper (How does calorie restriction work)
o hinder a variety of diseases among these experimental subjects, for example, kidney disease, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease and even Alzheimer, and even hindering psychomotor and spatial problems associated with aging (Koubova and Guarente, 2003). Such dramatic effects have
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
How spanking harms the brain
As the debate seems to never cease regarding the ethical considerations of spanking, this study on the effect of corporal punishment offers educated information that would help parents realize what kind of punishment to use. Moreover, the article mentions means of
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
How does the economy of Iceland work
The country’s economy is social based with a mixture of socialism, capitalism, and free market frameworks. The existence of both capitalistic and socialistic ideologies in
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
What is a wireless pineapple and how does it work
Basically Wifi Pineapple is allows users to carry out man-in-the-middle attacks. Connected clients traffic go through the attacker which
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
How Does the Brain Work
Nova scienceNOW defines the brain as being dependent on a single stimulus in order to make its decisions. A single stimulus is determined by the brain evaluating the activity
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
How Does The Drug Molly Work
Awareness of drugs, their negative effect and threats they pose, may help you keep aside. There exist different types of drug and each of them may make a person addicted. Molly is one of the most dangerous synthetic drugs, thus it consists of chemicals. It is the powder of crystal form, known as MDMA ((3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine), methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or Ecstasy.
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
How does the identity of consultants impact their work
Consultancy has a very broad theme to describe its fundamental principles and activities, ranging from management consulting linked with organisational change to public relations consulting that involves improving one’s corporate or celebrity image. Because of the dynamically-different roles of consulting, the notion of identity becomes an interesting topic of study to determine whether identity formation in such a diverse field maintains a positive or negative impact on work attitudes.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Essay on topic How does modaifnil work in the brain for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
+16312120006
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us