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Counseling Approaches - Essay Example

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Psychodynamic counseling approach is concentrated on unconscious perception and feelings. This approach takes source from psychoanalysis of Freud and is focused on determining and improving of psychological function, which was not properly developed since the childhood…
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Counseling Approaches Psychodynamic counseling approach is concentrated on unconscious perception and feelings. This approach takes source from psychoanalysis of Freud and is focused on determining and improving of psychological function, which was not properly developed since the childhood. Such malfunction brings to discomfort and must be corrected by psychodynamic therapy. Using this approach counseling specialists discover the root of behavioral or psychological disorder, define it for the individual and offer special therapy.
Frequently this approach also includes investigation and analysis of unconscious reaction of a person through interpersonal patterns. There are a lot of specific techniques, which are used by the specialists of psychodynamic therapy, like interpersonal interpretation, free association, childhood experience, working through past, subjective responses, etc. This approach differs from the others with its applicability to the clients with good flexibility and ability to plunge into their past in order to understand and improve their present. (Jacobs,. September 23, 2004)
Cognitive Behavioral approach is, probably, the most popular strategy in practice; it is very effective for treatment of such spread psychological disorders like depression, phobias, anxiety, etc. This approach is more general and its main characteristic is concentration of the therapist on analyzing "thoughts" and "thinking" of a person as a reason of psychological disorder. In other words, the therapist tries to analyze the influence of thoughts and perception of this world on behavior, to find out negative feelings and to help in replacing them with healthy positive emotions.
This approach also includes some different specific strategies, for example, rational behavior or rational living therapy, rational emotive therapy, and others. There is quite wide range of special techniques, like brainstorming, self-talk, evaluating evidence, target actions, modifying beliefs, etc., which can be used within this approach and chosen by a specialist accordingly to particular details of a situation. Bibliotherapy (reading therapy), being a part of cognitive behavioral strategy, received huge popularity and gives with brilliant results when treating moderate depressions. (Wikipedia, August 5, 2005)
Existential-Humanistic and Experiential approach is based on practical experience of human being and humanistic knowledge, which helps to treat individuals with psychological disturbances. This strategy can be used for consulting people, who suffer from unsatisfied needs and unfulfilled potential, and to form their priorities in satisfying personal requirements. Unlike above mentioned Cognitive Behavioral approach, which analyzes psychology from more "scientific" positions, Existential approach means using philosophic basis and understanding, what is human being. The most known works on Humanistic approach are: the Concept of Self-actualization and other theories of A. Maslow, and also Gestalt Therapy (based on the concept "now and here"). (Palmer, 2000, Chap. 6)
Integrated approach is a strategy, which combines two or more approaches, according to the particularities of an individual case. The specialist, who uses Integrated approach, analyzes the situation and creates a special program for a client, using advantages and benefits of any/some above mentioned approaches or strategies. (Palmer, 2000, Chap. 9) Category of Systems is frequently used in Family Therapy and Counseling.
Modern researches discovered that, taking into account all the differences, there is no approach, which can demonstrate better efficiency than the others. Specialists underline that the key for successful therapy is developed personal skills and establishing of good contact between customer and therapist. Nevertheless, there are definite types of disorders and distresses, which can be better treated by using the techniques of specified approach (for example, Cognitive Behavioral therapy is the best for treating people suffering from panic disorders, etc.). (Evaluating Therapeutic Effectiveness, n.d.).
Bibliography:
Cognitive Therapy. (2005, August 5). Wikipedia, Tha Free Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved August 15, 2005, from: .
Evaluating Therapeutic Effectiveness in Counselling And Psychoterapy. (n.d.). Councelling Resourse. Retrieved August 15, 2005, from .
Jacobs, M. (2004, September 23). Psychodynamic Counselling in Action. SAGE Publication. 3rd Edition
Palmer, S. (2000). Introduction to Counselling and Psychoterapy: The Essential Guide (Online summary). Councelling Info Ed. Sara Young. Retrieved August 15, 2005, from . Read More
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