Cognitive and Behavioural Views of Learning - Essay Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Learning is involved in literally all aspects of human life. From the cradle, we learn to crawl, then walk, and use our hands; by lapse of time we acquire more complex skills, such as reading or writing, or playing football; we learn how to persuade people, make them give us what we want; and during most part of our life we also learn how to learn…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.4% of users find it useful
Cognitive and Behavioural Views of Learning
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Cognitive and Behavioural Views of Learning"

Download file to see previous pages Representatives of behaviourism, cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis, and other perspectives demonstrate variety of views regarding the nature of learning. Learning as conditioning, learning as the formation and alteration of symbolic structures, learning as the adjustment of weights in a neural net - these are only some of them. The views of learning adopted by representatives of the most widely known schools - behaviourist and cognitive - provide a bright illustration to the origins and gravity of these differences.
The concept of learning is the central axis of behaviourism. J. Watson B. Skinner and E. Thorndike, the founding fathers of behavioural approach in psychology, are concerned not with what is going on inside the brain but rather with establishing cause-effect relationship between the act of behaviour and observable causes produced by that act.
The origins of behaviourist perspective are traced back to John Watson (1878 - 1958) whom was the first formulate the principles of modern behaviourism. His definition of this approach was highly practical. Thus, Watson believed psychology should be a purely objective field of knowledge used to accurately predict and control human behaviour. Introspection and self-analysis are useless if applied to psychology and there is no difference between humans and animals. In fact, Watson neglected the concept of the conscious as such (Littleton, Toates, & Braisby, 2002).
Formulating his views Watson relied heavily on the Ivan Pavlov's discovery of the mechanism of classical conditioning. Pavlov's studies of dog's digestion transformed the common understanding of learning. The scientist carried out a series of experiments in order to test his initial conclusions. He provided a sound or light signal that was immediately followed by some food placed in the dog's moth. The dog started to perceive the signal in conjunction with the food and after several repetitions the dog salivated immediately after the signal even without any food. This fact made Pavlov introduce a new psycho-physiological concept of a conditional stimulus in distinction to an unconditioned stimulus (Littleton, Toates, & Braisby, 2002: 170-171).
Although Pavlov revealed the phenomenon of classical conditioning during experimental studies, which involved animals, the key principle of this process is valid in human behaviour too. Watson described an example of the classical conditioning in human beings. Albert, an infant with a pet rat, was not afraid of it until once Watson banged a metal plate while the boy was reaching for his pet. Subsequently, Albert started to demonstrate fear of the rat (Littleton, Toates, & Braisby, 2002: 172). Another good example of the classical conditioning in humans is the bell-and-pad technique that is often used to cope with bed-wetting in children. Two perforated metal sheets connected to a low-tension battery are placed under the bed sheet. When a child moistens the bed urine short-circuits the sheets, and the battery produces a laud alarm making the child wake up. After several alarms the child is able to wake up without the alarm: the sensation of a full bladder ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Cognitive and Behavioural Views of Learning Essay”, n.d.)
Cognitive and Behavioural Views of Learning Essay. Retrieved from
(Cognitive and Behavioural Views of Learning Essay)
Cognitive and Behavioural Views of Learning Essay.
“Cognitive and Behavioural Views of Learning Essay”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Cognitive and Behavioural Views of Learning

Cognitive Learning

...? 18 May Cognitive learning: Part Cognitive learning is used to refer to the process of learning through perception. It is essentially a skill that is ingrained in every human being. A child learns many things through mere observation of his/her surroundings. The knowledge is gained without the aid of any adult or caregiver. Every individual tends to learn through reasoning, perception, thought, as well as intuition (Martin). Cognitive learning is often employed as a technique to alter behavior of individuals. Many factors that include but are not limited to culture, nurture, education...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

The psychodynamic and cognitive behavioural therapies

...on an individual’s interpersonal relations. The fifth importance characteristic of PT is its view that issues in life and other dynamics often re-emerge as transferences and counter-transference as clients and therapists relate. Sixth, PT emphasises free association as a tool for the exploration of clients’ internal problems. PT also focuses on defense mechanisms, interpretations of transference, and current symptoms. Additionally, PT focuses on working through current psychological problems and trust in insight being rather critical in clinical hypnosis (O’Hagan & Lynn, 2009). The Cognitive-Behavioural Theories and their Roles in Hypnosis In recent times, there have been increased...
14 Pages(3500 words)Essay

Cognitive Development and Cognitive Views of Learning

...Cognitive Development and Cognitive Views of Learning Understanding Morality Educational Psychology April 17, 2007 Cognitive Development and Cognitive Views of Learning Understanding Morality Interaction with the environment creates a child's world. Early moral reasoning is, according to Piaget, a developmental process. Reasoning determines behavior, and Piaget's preconventional level of behavior involves an "egocentric point of view." Fear of punishment and desire for rewards are factors that determine a child's behavior from 2 to 7 years old. However, at the next level, the concrete...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Psychosocial Interventions

...cognitive behavioural interventions, which may altogether influence change.  The main stay is a quantitative data presentation rather than qualitative.  Given that the population in the UK is increasingly multi-cultural and diverse, including people from various cultural, racial and spiritual backgrounds (Fernandos, 1995; Adams et al.,1998), how inclusive are these studies of different minority ethnic groups?  Given that, it is a well documented fact that many ethnic groups are often not referred to psychotherapy due to the inherent stereotype view held in psychology that they are not psychologically sound (Robinson, 1995), has widely acknowledged promising usage of CBT with a...
13 Pages(3250 words)Essay

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy particular. CBTComparedtootherModalitiesandMythsaboutCBT: - The cognitive and behavioural psychotherapies aim problems in the here and now with greatly less therapeutic time dedicated to experiences in early on life. - The therapeutic association is seen as an indispensable component but different other psychotherapies is not viewed as the major vehicle of alteration. In its place the focal point is in mutual working on together arranged problems. - The helpfulness of CBT is supported by confirmation from randomised forbidden trials, abandoned trials, case series and case studies. - It is together extremely prearranged (even though forever based on a formulation of the...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Awareness of cognitive behavioural therapy evident in the depressed individual's perception of the self, world and future. As, a result of these negative maladaptive schemas, the depressed person views himself as inadequate, deprived and worthless (Beck, 1976). Moreover, the term "cognitive triad" is utilised to refer to three elements of depressed person's negative view of himself or herself, the world and the future. Followers of behavioural and cognitive behavioural treatment models believe that depression is learned and then negatively reinforced because there are little or no positive reinforcements available to depressive individuals. As a result,...
21 Pages(5250 words)Coursework

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)

...Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) This is an account of the ongoing psychotherapeutic intervention in the life of a patient named Karen, a 36-year old single unemployed woman, only recently identified as suffering from Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) with a history of self-harm, numerous failed interpersonal relationships and suicidal behaviour. She is being treated by Dr Dierdra Banks, utilising dialectical behaviour therapy, a variant of Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT). The processes and rationale for the interventions by Karen’s therapist is examined in some detail in this paper. Some information on Karen available to...
12 Pages(3000 words)Case Study

Behavioural and Cognitive Counselling Theory

...colleagues’ studies on sensation and perception (McGuire, n.d). In this instance, the understanding of psychology was very much a cognitive one – later to be known as structuralism because it focused on sensory and perceptual events related to it (McGuire, n.d). More introspections and innovations among psychologists led to behaviourism. Behaviourism was founded through the writings of John Watson who collected data on behaviour itself and how the organism acted. According to Watson, it is not enough to observe the mind (McGuire, n.d). It is important however to see human behaviour as a result of learning and he points out the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

...Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Background Information The contemporary society is characterized by a scenario whereby there are myriad emotional and psychological challenges affecting individuals on different dimensions. This has compelled mental health practitioners to formulate and implement strategies geared towards providing solutions to the identified mental challenges. However, research has indicated that the level of efficacy of one solution to another; these differences have created a scenario where practitioners engage in review of the most appropriate techniques to ensure that they are appropriately applied. One of the solutions that have been applied to facilitate the provision of solutions to the identified...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy

...Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Reflective Account of Learning and Consideration of CBT application to a Client with Mild Depression Problem within my own Practice Name Course Institution Date Table of Contents Table of Contents 2 1.0Introduction 3 1.1 Purpose 3 1.2 Review of Literature: 3 1.2.1 Background of CBT, and Relevance to Practice 3 1.2.2 Critical Analysis and Review of CBT: 5 1.3 Reflection Framework 6 2.0 Expected Learning Outcomes before CBT Intervention 7 3.0 Learning Reflection During and After CBT Intervention 7 3.1 Description of Clinical Case 7 3.1.1 Activities Undertaken: 8 3.1.2 Cognitive methods used: 8 3.1.3 Behavioral Methods...
10 Pages(2500 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Essay on topic Cognitive and Behavioural Views of Learning for FREE!

Contact Us