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Social and emotional development of children - Book Report/Review Example

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In the 1960s and 1970s British psychologist John Bowlby and American psychologist Mary Ainsworth introduced the concept of attachment.They proposed that infants and young children form emotional bonds to their caregivers because,throughout human evolutionary history,close attachments to adults promoted the survival of defenseless children. …
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Social and emotional development of children
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Download file to see previous pages Finally, during the genital stage, from adolescence through adulthood, individuals develop mature sexual interests.
AnAmericanpsychoanalyst, Erik Erikson, proposed a related series of psychosocial stages of personality growth that more strongly emphasize social influences within the family. Erikson's eight stages span the entire life course, and, contrary to Freud's stages, each involves a conflict in the social world with two possible outcomes. In infancy, for example, the conflict is "trust vs. mistrust" based on whether the baby is confident that others will provide nurturance and care. In adolescence, "identity vs. role confusion" defines the teenager's search for self-understanding. Erikson's theory thus emphasizes the interaction of internal psychological growth and the support of the social world.
Learningtheoristsemphasize the role of environmental influences in shaping the way a person develops. In their view, child development is guided by both deliberate and unintended learning experiences in the home, peer group, school, and community. Therefore, childhood growth is significantly shaped by the efforts of parents, teachers, and others to socialize children in desirable ways. According to learning theories, the same principles that explain how people can use a bicycle or computer also explain how children acquire social skills, emotional self-control, reasoning strategies, and the physical skills of walking and running.

Onekindoflearningoccurs when a child's actions are followed by a reward or punishment. A reward, also called a reinforcer, increases the probability that behavior will be repeated. For example, a young child may regularly draw pictures because she...
In the 1960s and 1970s British psychologist John Bowlby and American psychologist Mary Ainsworth introduced the concept of attachment. They proposed that infants and young children form emotional bonds to their caregivers because, throughout human evolutionary history, close attachments to adults promoted the survival of defenseless children. At the end of the 19th century, Austrian physician Sigmund Freud developed the theory and techniques of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic theories emphasize the role of unconscious, instinctual drives in personality development.Learning theorists emphasize the role of environmental influences in shaping the way a person develops. In their view, child development is guided by both deliberate and unintended learning experiences in the home, peer group, school, and community. Therefore, childhood growth is significantly shaped by the efforts of parents, teachers, and others to socialize children in desirable ways. According to learning theories, the same principles that explain how people can use a bicycle or computer also explain how children acquire social skills, emotional self-control, reasoning strategies, and the physical skills of walking and running. In the cognitive field, understanding how children think is crucial to understanding their development because children’s perceptions of life events often determine how these events affect them. The emotional attachments of young children to their parents and other caregivers remain a cornerstone of psychological well-being in early childhood. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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