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Sigmund Freud Theory and Adult Conselling - Essay Example

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Sigmund Freud, who is often rightfully called the "father of psychoanalysis", as "elaborated the theory that the mind is a complex energy-system, the structural investigation of which is proper province of psychology , articulated and refined the concepts of the unconscious, of infantile sexuality, of repression, and proposed a tri-partite account of the mind's structure, all as part of a radically new conceptual and therapeutic frame of reference for the understanding of human psychological development and the treatment of abnormal mental conditions"…
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Sigmund Freud Theory and Adult Conselling
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Download file to see previous pages Sigmund Freud developed his research in three directions: he created his own personality theory, the theory of society and, finally, the method of curing functional psychic illnesses, the latter being especially important for the development of counseling psychology. Sigmund Freud's method of psychoanalysis is a combination of his theory and a special therapeutic method that can briefly be described as talking to patients and evoking their free associations, thus discovering their problems and curing them. S. Freud's views on human psyche developed with years of research, hence he developed several models of personality that will be discussed in the course of this paper.
In 1905 Freud believed that the thoughts and feelings - the mental contents - that are actively barred from access to consciousness - that are repressed, in other words - are sexual wishes of childhood origin. By 1925 he had learned that a need for punishment can be quite as inaccessible to consciousness as a libidinal wish. He had also observed that repression is not the only defense employed in psychic conflict; that a repudiated wish or conflictual memory can be accessible to consciousness and, finally, that defenses and the motives for defense against wishes that give rise to mental conflict are often themselves inaccessible to consciousness. As he put it, it often requires analytic work to help a patient become aware, not only of the instinctual side of the patient's pathogenic conflicts, but of their defensive aspect as well. (Brenner, 2006)
S. Freud elaborated the so-called 'metapsychology' - the science "that analyzes the workings of the mind from three perspectives: the dynamic, the economic, and the topographic", and whereas the dynamic perspective "entails probing mental phenomena to their roots in conflict-ridden unconscious forces mainly originating in, but not confined to, the drives", and the economic "attempts to specify the quantities and vicissitudes of mental energies", the topographic perspective "undertakes to differentiate distinct domains within the mind". (Gay 1998, 362) However, the combination of all three perspectives make up psychoanalysis as a genuinely new kind of psychology.
B. Key elements of S. Freud's theoretical approach
1. Topographical model
Sigmund Freud's topographical model deals with the ties existing between the conscious and unconscious processes of a man, and according to this model, it is possible to single out three spheres of conscious, subconscious, and unconscious, and each of these spheres has certain significance for psychoanalysis. Though these spheres are separated from each other with a border, there is a possibility to penetrate these borders. "Breaking" these borders in normal state is normally controlled by some mechanisms - e.g., certain instincts are not "allowed" from the unconscious to the subconscious sphere, and same happens on ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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