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Children's Cognitive Development - Book Report/Review Example

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According to Plotnik in 1999, Cognitive development is defined as ".how a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors". One of the best events that occurred in our 20th century occurred in psychology. This occurred when there were changes from the reductionist view to the non reductionist view on child cognitive behaviour…
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Childrens Cognitive Development
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Download file to see previous pages According to Plotnik in 1999, Cognitive development is defined as " a person perceives, thinks, and gains an understanding of his or her world through the interaction and influence of genetic and learned factors". One of the best events that occurred in our 20th century occurred in psychology. This occurred when there were changes from the reductionist view to the non reductionist view on child cognitive behaviour.The reductionist view is also termed behaviorialism. Pavlov saw behaviorialism of human learning that was developed by Watson, Hull and Thorndike in the 1950s. The reductionist sees cognitive development as a black box approach approach based in empiricism, just like the approach a single chemist may use.Since one cannot observe what is happening in the brain, we should limit our measurements and theories to merely what is going in - the stimulus - and what is coming out - the response. By mid-century, the S-R view was so powerful that it dominated other fields of human science as well: education, linguistics and sociology. Classical conditioning by itself could not explain what Jean Piaget(Sheldon, 1995) had observed, that all children have to go through the four stages of development that have no relation to external stimuli. Somehow, he proposed, the brain itself is actively involved in the learning process. The reductionist view, however, has been replaced by more complex non-reductionist views because of the new teachings of Piaget regarding the cognitive child development.
Constructivist argument
The constructivists who were the educators, researchers and policymakers had discussed the merits of the constructivist style of child cognitive development.
Many teachers, researchers and policymakers have discussed constructivism and the constructivist approach to learning and also teaching. During the past few years, this orientation has become the standard in academic circles. The use of a constructionist perspective in order to help children gain a deep understanding of themselves in relation to others in the world, should not therefore be unclear to many educators. The issue of whether the teacher him/herself should directly intervene in such affairs has been one of many concerns. In constructivist style, two factors must be addressed in making such a decisions: a) is this an activitiy which requires permission from the child's family, and b) is this a responsibility for which I should expend considerable time Teachers and administrators must have a clear understanding of what cognitive restructuring is all about, and as good constructivist, we should start from a concept that many will know and understand.
Constructivism had grown out from a long and highly respected tradition in cognitive psychology through the teachings of Dewey, Vygotski and Piaget. Constructivism shows the people's understanding of many concepts by experiencing the act or situation themselves. The teacher(Needleman, 1999) and the clinicians help guide the children to learn Constructivism holds that people's understanding of any concept depends entirely on their mental construction of that concept - that is, their experiences in deriving that concept for themselves. Teacher and clinicians and others can guide the process, but children must undertake and manage the process of developing an understanding for themselves. Different individuals, depending on their experiences, knowledge and their cognitive structures at the time will understand a given presentation differently. Research indicates that people remember an experience based on what their pre-existing knowledge and cognitive structures allow them to absorb - regardless of the other's intentions or the quality of explanation.
This shows that each child must experience the ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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