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Criminals - Essay Example

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The causes of crime, as in the factors which create the criminal as opposed to the motives for a specific crime, are the subject of heated debate between biologists and sociologists. Biologists maintain that criminals and crime are a product of biological factors such as inherited psychiatric disorders or brain defects, while a significant percentage of sociologists contend that the social environment is the primary determinant of the development of criminality (Gibbs, 1995)…
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Download file to see previous pages The stated investigation, fortified by sociological, psychological and scientific data, has determined that psychopathology, hence, criminality, is either a consequence of biological disorder whose effects are increased due to exposure to unhealthy social factors, or a result of social factors such as poverty, exposure to unstable and unhealthy family environments or violent communities which in turn, lead to the development of social pathology, or anti-social and destructive behavior (Horowitz, 1984: 95-96, 98). Consequently, when disputing the contention that criminality is the outcome of biological factors, sociologists are basing their argument for the centrality of socio-psychological causal factors, on established facts. Certainly, a number of biological disorders may be responsible for the development of criminality but, environmental factors supersede the biological factors as shall be argued.
Scientists have ident...
This area, known as the orbital frontal cortex, is responsible for "judgment and impulse control" (Fischman). This area can be injured through serious head wounds but, that damage and its effects take some time to develop. Thus, there is no way of immediately controlling its effects as there is no method of detecting whether or not that area of the brain has been damaged until that damage is fully developed (Fischman, 2000). A second biological defect, identified as one of the causes for delinquency and psychopathology, is the presence of an additional Y chromosome in male genes (Gibbs, 1995).
The third identified biological cause of criminality and psychopathology, which is chemical imbalance, is easier to deal with and control. The first form of chemical imbalance is the increase of the testosterone levels in the bodies of men. Science has discovered that this chemical is responsible for "aggression, risk-taking and low-impulse control" (Does testosterone,' 1993). Furthermore statistics show that men who have high levels of testosterone are "28% more likely" to be involved in crimes than those who have normal levels of this chemical (Does testosterone,' 1993). The second type of chemical imbalance causing aggression is a "low level of serotonin" in the body (Gibbs, 1995). This chemical "inhibits the secretion of stomach acid and stimulates smooth muscle and in the brain functions as a neurotransmitter" (Gibbs, 1995). Accordingly, low levels of serotonin cause the heart rate to be much slower than normal, which is a symptom of sociopathology (Gibbs, 1995). That is, those who have low levels of serotonin in their bodies are not capable of feeling fear or excitement in ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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