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Social work - Term Paper Example

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Human Behavior and Development Name: Course: Lecturer: Date: Introduction In the development of human beings, there are quite a number of variations and systems that have a set of relations in the general well-being (Hutchison, 2003). This theory proposed by Bronfenbrenner discusses the socio-cultural view of development of human beings stating that the social interaction of persons plays an integral role in cognition and that every function in the cultural development of the child appears twice in his life time (Hutchison, 2003)…
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Download file to see previous pages According to him, the individual and the environment are in a state of fluctuation and that nature and nurture are both incorporated. He argues that development is not universal as changes will occur both qualitatively and quantitatively which must be studied within the required social contexts. He therefore stresses that a phenomenological experiential outlook that is personal or taken at an individual level must be undertaken. Finally, that all the factors occur within dynamic contexts as social, cultural or historical in nature (Bronfenbrenner, 2005). Ecological Perspectives of Human Development There are five ecological perspectives according to Bronfenbrenner which include the microsystem, the mesosystem, the microsystem, the exosystem and the chronosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 2005). Microsystem The microsystem includes the immediate surroundings of an individual such as the family, school, peer group or persons in the neighborhood as well as the personal biological make-up of a person. In this context, the individual is not passive and relationship is an important concept in that events must have a substantial amount of contact over time. Bronfenbrenner stresses that in comprehending development, one must understand that relationships are bi-directional and there must be relationship between the parent and the child in parenting Mesosystem The mesosystem incorporates the connections and dimensions with objects present in the microsystem or simply put as that which consists of the connections between one’s immediate environments such as the connection between home and school. It includes the relationship between different microsystems, family, groups and peers and posits that when there is a breakdown of communication in the society; individuals are not likely to orient themselves to the microsystems. Exosystem The exosystem is made up of the external environmental settings and conditions that affect the development of the individual indirectly but of which the individual is not part of, for example the work place of one’s parents or where the parents are stationed. The territory includes the specific social structures and organizations that do not contain the individual but do affect the immediate environment of the individual that can determine and influence the outcomes in the environment. These structures may include major institutions that operate in the local level such as the neighborhood, the place of work or the agencies set up by the government that may help in the development of the youths both socially and psychologically. Macrosystem and Chronosytem The macrosytem is comprised of the larger cultural context such as the values, customs, laws, beliefs and traditions of the surrounding culture such as the national economy. The fifth ecological perspective is the chronosytem which is concerned with change over time and pertains to the modeling of events in the environmental and the changes over time, but also includes the patterning of the events in the environment and the transitions over life and time. These changes experienced in the chronosystem can be created or imposed externally as children tend to create most of their own settings ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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