Human Behavior and Development Name: Course: Lecturer: Date: Introduction In the development of human beings, there are quite a number of variations and systems that have a set of relations in the general well-being (Hutchison, 2003). This theory proposed by Bronfenbrenner discusses the socio-cultural view of development of human beings stating that the social interaction of persons plays an integral role in cognition and that every function in the cultural development of the child appears twice in his life time (Hutchison, 2003)…
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According to him, the individual and the environment are in a state of fluctuation and that nature and nurture are both incorporated. He argues that development is not universal as changes will occur both qualitatively and quantitatively which must be studied within the required social contexts. He therefore stresses that a phenomenological experiential outlook that is personal or taken at an individual level must be undertaken. Finally, that all the factors occur within dynamic contexts as social, cultural or historical in nature (Bronfenbrenner, 2005). Ecological Perspectives of Human Development There are five ecological perspectives according to Bronfenbrenner which include the microsystem, the mesosystem, the microsystem, the exosystem and the chronosystem (Bronfenbrenner, 2005). Microsystem The microsystem includes the immediate surroundings of an individual such as the family, school, peer group or persons in the neighborhood as well as the personal biological make-up of a person. In this context, the individual is not passive and relationship is an important concept in that events must have a substantial amount of contact over time. Bronfenbrenner stresses that in comprehending development, one must understand that relationships are bi-directional and there must be relationship between the parent and the child in parenting Mesosystem The mesosystem incorporates the connections and dimensions with objects present in the microsystem or simply put as that which consists of the connections between one’s immediate environments such as the connection between home and school. It includes the relationship between different microsystems, family, groups and peers and posits that when there is a breakdown of communication in the society; individuals are not likely to orient themselves to the microsystems. Exosystem The exosystem is made up of the external environmental settings and conditions that affect the development of the individual indirectly but of which the individual is not part of, for example the work place of one’s parents or where the parents are stationed. The territory includes the specific social structures and organizations that do not contain the individual but do affect the immediate environment of the individual that can determine and influence the outcomes in the environment. These structures may include major institutions that operate in the local level such as the neighborhood, the place of work or the agencies set up by the government that may help in the development of the youths both socially and psychologically. Macrosystem and Chronosytem The macrosytem is comprised of the larger cultural context such as the values, customs, laws, beliefs and traditions of the surrounding culture such as the national economy. The fifth ecological perspective is the chronosytem which is concerned with change over time and pertains to the modeling of events in the environmental and the changes over time, but also includes the patterning of the events in the environment and the transitions over life and time. These changes experienced in the chronosystem can be created or imposed externally as children tend to create most of their own settings
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83) states, the task centered model aims at helping the client alleviate problems that concern him, and to provide with a constructive problem solving experience that will encourage the client to use help if problems arise in the future and to strengthen own problem-solving skills.
According to (Anderson, 1999)“The prosecution of child sexual abuse cases continues to be an area in which there is a strain between the judicial system and the social work profession; the former is predominately interested in the conviction of the accused and the later is primarily interested in the protection of the child's emotional well-being”.Treating a child especially one who is mistreated and abused is a matter of great concern.
Their main task is to analyze and identify mental health issues faced by individuals. Their main purpose is to look after the cognitive well being of singles, families, teenagers, adults, seniors and various other people who fall in different categories. Their prime focus is on providing psychotherapy so subjects can adjust in their environments.
The social work occupation endorses social amendments, problem solving in human affairs along with the liberation and empowerment of people to improve well-being (Payne, 2005). Social work occurs at the points where individuals interact with their surroundings.
According to the paper extensive knowledge in law, sociology, social policies and social administration, philosophy and psychology are elaborated as the core foundations of the profession. Finally, the importance of skills application to enhance competence, which different social workers roles rely on to deliver service effectively are discussed. The normal life that people lead in this modern society is characterized by different problems in the distinguished situations, ranging from violence, corruption and other irregularities with both adults and young children involvement.
There exist principles and standards of ethics that are applicable in certain situations. Academicians developed a hierarchy of principles that available for counseling. These principles focus on the well-being of clients as counselors consent not to share the information given to them.
of had at least a certain degree of interest in the subject matter for an extended period of time for her to decide to make it a prolonged area of educational study. She is also someone who cares greatly for civic related causes in that she was jailed at the age of 10 years
It is a three-year-old bravely drug and substance abuse or a research team discovering a valuable cure for a disease. It is also the generous support by their community and loyal customers in providing funds and supporting their growing care,
It addresses the complexity and the interrelationship between humans and their environment and as such focuses to problem-solving and bringing change to the society. Social work grew out of humanitarian ideals with an objective of improving people’s lives based on equality and dignity of all people.
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