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Reflection - Research Paper Example

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Psychology Reflection Paper Name Instructor Name Introduction Although various psychologists may present divergent views on some behavioral aspects, the views and opinions they offer regarding Educational Psychology are relevant to individuals of all lifestyles and occupations…
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Psychology Reflection Paper Introduction Although various psychologists may present divergent views on some behavioral aspects, the views and opinions they offer regarding Educational Psychology are relevant to individuals of all lifestyles and occupations. The study of human behavior in itself is very crucial in many aspects of human life for example in the learning process and the characterization and shaping of behavioral features of various personalities (O'Donnell, Reeve, & Smith, 2012). This paper reflects on the major elements in Educational Psychology such as applying the learning strategies, classical conditioning and contiguity, operant conditioning and Bandura’s challenge of traditional behavioral views of learning. According to Pastorino and Doyle-Portillo (2006), psychologies present many learning strategies involving the inter-behavioral aspects, even as observation learning emerges as the commonest. During the learning process, one has to acknowledge a change in their perception although the learning process may not necessarily mean a change in behavior. Observation learning involves three models for instance the individual exhibiting the behavior, the verbal component, and the symbolic components depicting the character. It is equally important to emphasize the process of learning through observation may not be complete without the incorporation of such skills as attention, retention, reproduction, and motivation (O'Donnell, Reeve, & Smith, 2012).  When it comes to behavior, renowned psychologists such as B. F. Skinner and Albert Bandura strongly proposed that one’s experience determines their behavior with the latter suggesting that people learn by observing what others are doing in addition to formulating their goals to meet their specific targets. On the other hand, B. F. Skinner claimed that environmental factors play an important role in influencing the behaviors of persons and individuals could directly learn from their immediate environment (O'Donnell, Reeve, & Smith, 2012).  Perhaps another essential concept concerning individuals’ behavior is the classical conditioning and contiguity, a principle supported by various theoretical backgrounds. In this case, a stimulus that normally triggers both physiological and emotional response can be aligned with a neutral stimulus in order to transfer the conditioned response from the active stimulus to the neutral stimulus. This results in a situation where the neutral stimulus transforms into conditioned stimulus to evoke equally stimulating responses as the classic stimulus. Contiguity refers to the process of pairing and associating two distinct stimuli in order to condition one to perform the same function as the partner. This theory is beneficial in determining how an individual responds to conditioned stimuli for example singing before commencing the learning process (Bandura, 2002). Another learning strategy is the operant conditioning that involves the shaping of an individual’s behavior by applying various modifications to the consequences of the behavior. It is in most cases n effective learning process as it involves both the positive side known as the reinforcement and the negative side known as the punishment. While reinforcement seeks to accentuate the behavior, punishment seeks to negate the behavior and therefore one can argue that there is presence of stimulus in reinforcement and absence of it in the punishment side as a learning tool. These two learning tools have played a pivotal role in shaping my overall perspective and behavior over the years, especially at school. According to B. F. Skinner, the module of operant conditioning anchored on identification and monitoring of the behavior of persons with the main aim of enhancing positive characters while suppressing undesirable behavioral aspects (Bandura, 2002). Albert bandura, through his social cognitive theory, challenged the traditional behavioral views of learning in that he categorically claimed that direct reinforcement was not an adequately inclusive learning strategy, as it could not apply to all learning situations thereby compromising on its viability. Instead, he emphasized on the need to incorporate the social aspect in the learning process by inferring that it was possible that persons can learn effectively through observation process where thy could choose to emulate desirable traits and avoid the objectionable ones. In his explanations of this learning strategy, Bandura talked of self-efficacy as an essential part of learning where an individual’s abilities, attitudes, and cognitive skills form part of the essential observation leaning process. Indeed, effective learning process requires some elements of social interactions, though not to the exclusivity of other learning approaches (O'Donnell, Reeve, & Smith, 2012).  From the Educational Psychology principles I learned, I am strongly against the idea of grouping student commensurate to their abilities, be it academic or otherwise. This is because it undermines the social cognitive skills as professed by Bandura who insisted about observational learning. Students with lower abilities ought to interact with more capable student in order to learn from them. The cognitive and behavioral views of B. F. Skinner and Albert Bandura persuade that the learning process ought to take into consideration the behavioral aspects of all the learners and the model used, a factor that informed my decision to come boldly against student grouping in accordance to individual abilities (Pastorino, & Doyle-Portillo, 2006).  Though my experience in creating and delivering a lecture was rather hectic, I managed to impart my knowledge to the audience effectively as I successfully employed the theories and principles projected in Educational Psychology. My successes in delivering a lecture were the active participation by all the students, significant comprehension by a vast majority of the students, and the students’ acknowledgement for the efficient learning strategy. However, my major failure was the inability to use the operant conditioning approach effectively especially when it came to the negative aspects, considering the fact that my audiences were my peers (Warren, 2010). References Bandura, A. (2002). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall. O'Donnell, A. M., Reeve, J., & Smith, J. K. (2012). Educational psychology: Reflection for action. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Pastorino, E., & Doyle-Portillo, S. (2006). What is psychology? Australia: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning. Warren, J. M. (2010). The impact of rational emotive behavior therapy on teacher efficacy and student achievement. Journal of School Counseling, 8(11), 1-28. Read More
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