Psychology key theories Name Institutional Affiliation Psychology key theories Attribution theory is a term used in clinical psychology to refer to processes or events which causes change of behavior. There are several models that encompass the description for each process…
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It supports that behavioral changes is caused by internal stimuli which can either make a person to be comparative or defiant. Weak control systems often lead to defiant behaviors among people since there is little or no external control on the behavioral aspect of the people. The theory works on the assumption that all human beings act rationally unless they are driven by circumstances into being defiant. This can be equated to a society where people are social and caring for each other, in such a society there are less defiant activities than in a society lacking a strong social bond. Therefore, both attribution theory and control theory come in handy in determining the behavior of individuals which is helpful to clinical psychologists. These theories are pertinent in understanding why patients behave in a certain way. A vigorous study on attribution theory begun in 1920’s when Fritz Heider wrote a dissertation addressing phenomenology as a vital problem. In the dissertation, Heider attempted to answer a phenomenon that is caused when an object is perceived and the subsequent physical media by which it was sensed. For instance, someone will associate ticking of a watch with the passage of time and this is what he referred to as attribution. The whole process is perceived by the sensory organs of the body which is then translated into sensory data and the data are finally interpreted into something substantial. Heider also argued that the theory could be helpful in explaining how people perceive each other. He referred to this phenomena as personal perception which he further divided into two categories; personal causality for instance giving a helping hand to someone in trouble. The second category is impersonal causality which is concerned with describing events that are exclusive to a given person. Other theorists, such as Bernard Weiner and Harold Kelley, tend to describe Heider’s works as distinctive between internal or personal causes and external or situational causes of behavior change. On the other hand, control theory was developed by Walter Reckless in the year 1973. The theory was developed following an attempt by Walter to explain how weak bonds lead to deviant behaviors among friends and the society as a whole. Likewise, people who are not affiliated to a certain family are prone to committing crimes for their own selfish interests. This is unlikely in people who have strong bonds because the end result of being deviant will be costly not only to the person but damaging to the reputation of all the family members. According to Walter Reckless, deviant acts are attractive to all individuals but social bonds puts a restraint on would be perpetrators. Deviance is caused by constant exposure to unfavorable social situations which leads individuals into developing antisocial behaviors (Malle, 2004 p. 103). Some deviations are attractive, that is why Walter developed the control theory which encourages the creation and subsequent affiliation to family members through a social bond. Walter’s control theory is supported by the primary principle of social bonds where four elements that determine social bonds have been identified. These elements entail attachment, commitment, belief and involvement. These ideas in support of control theories were forwarded by Travis Hirschi who describes human beings as selfish because everyone makes choices that will accord them maximum benefits. Travis is in support of Walters’ ideas such that control is majorly affected through
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However, psychologists succeeded in finding some alternate ways to measure the activities of mind up to certain extent. This paper briefly analyses the history and evolving nature of clinical psychology and the importance of research and statistics in the development of counselling psychology.
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