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Selective Attention - Stroop Effect - Research Paper Example

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Will the Stroop effect for the color-naming task be larger or smaller than the Stroop Effect for the word-naming task? by: [course] [professor] Will the Stroop effect for the color-naming task be larger or smaller than the Stroop Effect for the word-naming task?…
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Selective Attention - Stroop Effect
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Download file to see previous pages Over the years, however, the experiment has evolved and it is now used to discover how to enhance learning and retention. Using a 2x2 factorial study design, 38 participants were asked to complete two Stroop tasks – color-naming and word-naming – in 96 sessions. The main purpose for the study is to determine which of the two Stroop tasks register higher Stroop effect, which can impede learning. The results of the study corroborate early findings of various Stroop experiments – word-naming takes a shorter time to complete compared to the color-naming task. Moreover, this study discovered that the time required to name the ink color of an incongruent color word is relatively high compared to the time required to name the color of a congruent color world. Introduction As a student exposed to various types of media, paying attention can be difficult. Because people fail to pay attention, they fail to notice the small details. For example, a student may ask the teacher again when a paper is due when it is already written out on the board. Perhaps one common example of selective attention is an online quiz wherein words people were required to read a short passage where words only have the write first and last letter but the middle letters were all jumbled up. Here is on example: Yuor barin is trluly pehnmoeanl. It can raed pssaaegs lkie tihs eevn wehn selpled icnroretcly as lnog as the frist and lsat lertets of the wdors are in the rgiht oedrr. According to the results of these online quizzes, most people are able to read these seemingly jumbled up passages because the brain does not pay attention to the order of the letters. Instead, it tries to fill in the information based on its previous “knowledge”, hence allowing the individual to read the passage even when the letters are not in order (Tzelgov, Porat, & Henik, 1997). Selective attention is well studied in Stroop experiments. The original Stroop task involves the color naming of a word stimuli that is printed in different colors, for example BLUE. This incongruent item makes it difficult for a subject to give a response than when the color and the word coincide (congruent), such as in BLUE. The difference in the reading of time of congruent and incongruent is called the Stroop effect. The Stroop effect is a widely used tool to study cognitive control or the psychological process that enables individuals to plan, coordinate, execute actions and accomplish tasks. Instead of running a typical Stroop experiment, this study added a second factor, task, to determine if it can limit the Stroop effect. Research shows selection of action based on a requirement will help a person focus on an element of the experiment and ignore irrelevant information. According to Tracy Brown (1996), theories of reading have emphasized on the automaticity of word recognition, hence making it difficult for respondents to ignore word information. This research however, tries to determine whether this automaticity can be reduced if an individual is given a task to focus on, hence effectively reducing the Stroop effect. The main research question for this paper is: “Will the Stroop effect for the color-naming task be larger or smaller than the Stroop Effect for the word-naming task?” Our hypothesis is that when a person is given a task to perform, he or she focuses on this task hence limiting the Stroop effect, and enables the subject to improve response time. Methods Participants Participants for ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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