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Eye tracking technique - Essay Example

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According to Poole and Ball (2005, p. 1), eye tracking is the technique of measuring an individual’s eye movements “so that the researcher knows both where a person is looking at any given time and the sequence in which their eyes are shifting from one location to another”…
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Download file to see previous pages It is a technique which is often used to trace a person’s eye movements in order to assist human computer interaction (HCI) researchers in evaluating visual data processing and the elements which may affect the utilization of system interfaces (Poole and Ball, 2005). Through this tracking technique, the eye movements can be detected and considered as control signals in order to allow individuals to interact directly with interfaces without having to use a mouse of keyboard input (Poole and Ball, 2005). This is especially advantageous for individuals with disabilities. From the earliest days of tracking eye movements, various techniques have been used as tools of measurement. The earliest tools were the electro-oculographic techniques which used electrodes mounted on the skin surrounding the eye to assess the differences in the electric potential in order to measure eye movements (Poole and Ball, 2005). Large contact lenses around the cornea and sclera were also used in the past to track eye movements. Differences in the electromagnetic field based on the movement of the metal coil around the eyes were used as parameters in evaluating eye movements (Duchowski, 2003). These methods were however considered invasive; and a shift in the current non-invasive techniques was later seen. Most eye tracking techniques now use video images to track eye movements (Poole and Ball, 2005)....
Eye movement research is a source of major interest in neuroscience and psychiatry, including advertising and design because these studies can establish consumer preferences. As eye movements can actually be managed voluntarily, and since they can also be tracked by appropriate tools, they can also be used “as a powerful input device, and have many practical applications in human-computer interactions” (Richardson, 2004, p. 2). In recent years, computer use and computer-based systems have increased. As a result, researchers have shifted their focus on eye movements in order to evaluate usability of certain products or items within sight (Tzanidou, 2005). Eye movements are considered as indicators of number of cognitive processing an image may require and how easy such image can be processed. This would then lead to the beneficial use of eye tracking in order to evaluate the use of user interfaces (Tzanidou, 2005). Eye movements can establish various patterns for scanning while navigation is being carried out by a user. Scan patterns are determined through the amount of fixations and their succeeding saccades (Tzanidou, 2005). Fixation refers to the process of focusing on a particular feature of an interface, it may last about 300-400 ms. At this point, cognitive processes are needed in order to comprehend such fixation. Data can be gained during fixation and higher fixations can imply a difficulty in gaining the much needed data from the image (Tzanidou, 2005). Eye trackers usually measure point-of-regard through the corneal reflection method (Goldberg and Wichansky, 2003). In this tracking, a standard desktop computer is often available, along with an infrared camera underneath the display monitor where image processing is carried out and qualities ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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