EU Lobbying Under Spotlight: MEPs Put EU Lobbying Under Spotlight Ahead of Report. (2007). [Online]. European Parliament. Last accessed 26 November 2008 at: http://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/public/focus_page/008-25231-168-06-25-901-20080331FCS25217-16-06-2008-2008/default_p001c001_en.htm 58
Download file to see previous pages...
Such a situation arose because rulers cannot be expected to know all the problems faced by their subjects. Hence, people have used various methods by which their views can be heard and understood by whatever power that governs them. This process developed to a situation where a group of influential persons were able to make a ruler comply to their wishes. This process known to the modern world as lobbying has been going on ever since a structured form of governance has existed. At present, lobbying plays a powerful role in influencing decisions of governments across the world. This process has developed to such an extent that a powerful lobby can influence even the governments of other countries. This paper is an attempt at studying the lobbying process that exists in Turkey with regard to the European Union. Turkey, has been trying to get full membership in the Union for a long time. In fact, the process started way back in September1959 when Turkey applied for an associate membership in what was the European Economic Council (EEC). (EU Turkey Relations 2004). The timeline for the accession process is given here. After four years, in September 1963, the Ankara Agreement came into force where Turkey is to be taken into the Customs Union and also for full membership in the EEC. A financial protocol is also signed during this period. In 1970 an Additional Protocol and a second financial protocol is made and signed. This was in September of that year in Brussels. Both these were regarding the setting up of the Customs Union. Before accession could take place, Turkey invaded Cyprus in 1974 and this created problems for accession since Cyprus was also a part of Europe. A military coup in the country on September 12, 1980 worsened the relationship between the Community and Turkey still further. Even so, the Community agreed to decrease customs duties gradually until it was to be removed totally, on Turkish agricultural products by the year 1987. The membership process came to a standstill until it was revived by the Turkish EEC Association Council in 1986.
On April 14th 1987, turkey applies for full membership in the council instead of an Associate member. It took two years, until December 1989 for the
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“Turkish Lobby in the European Union Case Study”, n.d.)
Retrieved de https://studentshare.org/politics/1529245-turkish-lobby-in-the-european-union
(Turkish Lobby in the European Union Case Study)
“Turkish Lobby in the European Union Case Study”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/politics/1529245-turkish-lobby-in-the-european-union.
Immediately after WWII, Eastern Europe came under the control of the Soviet Union or communist regime whereas Western Europe continued under the democratic regimes. In other words, Soviet Union strengthened its control in Eastern Europe whereas America did the same in Western Europe.
If the provisions of the Directive are ambiguous or less precise, conditional and its implementation requires the action of the state, then the principle of indirect effect makes them effective. Secondly, the provisions of a Directive can be enforced against private parties indirectly.
Article 308 provides that where there is no power for the council, it can act only on a decision by unanimous voting.1.
As per Article 67 (1) there shall be unanimous decision in respect of any proposal during the transitional period of five years following the treaty of Amsterdam.
Discussion of the prospects for European monetary union has often focused on whether the European Union is an optimal currency area for Britain and, if not, how long it might take to become one and whether there might be unacceptable costs to some part of the territory along the way.
Many of SCP's products contain SO2.
b) Because of concern that children are getting too fat, the Dutch government has banned the advertising of crisps and sweets on TV between 4 p.m. and 7 p.m. It has also forbidden sports organisations to accept sponsorship from manufacturers of crisps and sweets.
In these terms, Europe has a significant presence and the regional bodies of Europe have a structural impact on Europe as well as those who wish to trade with Europe. Finally, there are a few policies of the EU which can be considered stronger or weaker in comparison to other countries of the world.
Once it is established that one's employer falls within this provision we then need to establish that the provisions of the Directive are "clear, negative, unconditional, containing no reservation on the part of the Member State and not dependent on any national implementing measure,: Alfons Ltticke GmbH v.
As a matter of course and as a matter of law, the said directive cannot be transposed into a statute which attaches the qualification or condition that the payment of the afore-mentioned compensation can only be made if the accident is due to the gross negligence of the employer.
This paper will spell out why the ruling in itself was flawed and therefore establishing a dangerous precedentii to corporation law.
For a very long time, corporation law had presumed that a corporate entity had a separate
8 Pages(2000 words)Case Study
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Case Study on topic Turkish Lobby in the European Union for FREE!