TheEuropean Union(EU) is a political and economic union of 27member states, situated principally inEurope. It was founded as a result of the Treaty of Maastrichtin 1993 based on the fundamentals of the pre-existingEuropean Economic Community. With approximately a population of 500million citizens, the EU collectively generates an approximated 30% share of the global nominalgross domestic productwith US$16.8 trillion in 2007…
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It has build up a role inforeign policy, and represents its members in theWorld Trade Organization, atG8summits and at theUnited Nations. Twenty-one EU nations are part ofNATO. It has also taken up a responsibility in justice and home affairs, which includes the elimination of passport control between many member nations under theSchengen Agreement. (Alan, 2007)
The EU functions through a hybrid mechanism ofintergovernmentalismandsupranationalism. In particular areas it relies on agreement among the member states. However, it also possesses supranational bodies, thus is competent to make judgments without agreement between each and every national governments. Among the prominent institutions and bodies of the EU are theEuropean Commission, theEuropean Parliament, theCouncil of the European Union, theEuropean Council, theEuropean Court of Justice,and theEuropean Central Bank. In every five years, the Parliament is elected by the EU citizens. Origins of the EU go back to the formation of theEuropean Coal and Steel Community,formed among six countries in 1951 and theTreaty of Romein 1957. Thereafter the EU has expanded in size via accession of new associate states, and in authority by adding new policy areas to its remit. (Richard, 2006)
Subsequent to theSecond World War, efforts made towards European integration were viewed as a get away approach from the intense forms of nationalism, which had ravaged the continent.Theformation of the European Coal and Steel Community was among one such attempt to bring together Europeans. While having the unassuming aim of federal control of the formerly national coal and steel industries of its member nations, it was stated to be "a first step in the federation of Europe".The founding members of the Community wereBelgium,France,Italy,Luxembourg, theNetherlandsandWest Germany. Thereafter the history of Europe saw the establishment of European Economic Community(EEC) ascertaining acustoms unionand theEuropean Atomic Energy Community(Euratom) for cooperation in developingnuclear energy. In 1967, the Merger Treaty provided for the amalgamation of these communities collectively referred to as European Communities, which popularly were termed as European Community. (Ben, 2000)
In 1973 incorporation of Denmark,Irelandand theUnited Kingdom enlarged the communities. In 1979, thefirst autonomous electionsto the European Parliament were held. The 80s saw the incorporation of Greece,SpainandPortugal. In 1990, the previousEast Germanyembodied the Community under newly united Germany. The European Union was officially instituted when theMaastricht Treatywas enacted upon on 1 November 1993. Presently, the European Union comprises 27independentsovereignnationsknown as member states: Austria,Belgium,Bulgaria,Cyprus, theCzech Republic,Denmark,Estonia,Finland,France,Germany,Greece, Hungary,Ireland,Italy,Latvia,Lithuania,Luxembourg,Malta, theNetherlands,Poland,Portugal,Romania, Slovakia,Slovenia,Spain,Sweden, and theUnited Kingdom. (Alan, 2007)
The EU is habitually portrayed as being separated into three divisions of responsibility, calledpillars. The original European Community principles form the first pillar, while the second beingCommon
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“Political Economy of the European Union Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/politics/1518109-political-economy-of-the-european-union.
Microsoft, there was a specific allegation that Microsoft held a competitive advantage over other competitors, leading to a monopoly within an international framework. In the case that followed in 2004, there was the decision that Microsoft needed to disclose information that would allow rival vendors to interoperate with Windows.
Thus, during the last eight years, the European Union has expanded from 15 to 27 states. Given that the process of expansion is properly implemented, it promotes the transformation of many European countries into democratic and prosperous states. However, many people still consider the process of EU further enlargement to be harmful for European welfare.
Serious to light physical injuries cause by fall, accidents, instantaneous trauma of body tissues, respiratory ailments, musculoskeletal disorders and fatigue are only few of the many work related disorders that can bring discomfort among the laborers. In a construction industry in Sweden, more than one out of five men (1:5), has been reported for work-related disorders in their musculoskeletal structures (Lundholm and Swartz, 2006) and about 69% are work-related injuries in 2005 (Samuelsson and Lundholm, 2006).
D) The Convergence criteria is also known as the Maastricht Criteria. It defines the conditions that must be fulfilled by the EU member states to qualify for the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union and adopt the euro. The member countries who want to adopt the euro must comply with the conditions listed in Article 121(1) of the European Community Treaty.
In this regard, regional representation has blossomed from two regional offices in 1985 to 165 in 2000. What does this imply and where is it leading the EU - towards convergence through the structuring of an appropriate platform for the sharing of ideas and resources; or towards divergence through the creation of separate regional identities Let us find out.
The major obstacles which the union has to experience basically derives from Asian market, the regional market has given competition to the union members in industrial and financial traits. The scope of the problem is not just confine to the American imports inside EU countries; rather it is the Asian market which has flooded the European market with its cheap and qualitative standards.
he Common Agricultural Policy, Competition Policy, Science and Technology Policy, Regional Policy and Social Policy and their resultant outcomes are described briefly in the following sections.
The CAP of the European Union has undergone several significant reforms since the
lation of 500 million citizens, the EU collectively generates an approximated 30% share of the global nominal gross domestic product with US$16.8 trillion in 2007. The EU has formulated a “single market” by means of a standardized system of laws applicable in all member
ving process of integration, the EU went through at least four of Balassa’s stages of economic integration – namely, Free Trade Area, Customs Union, Common Market and Economic Union – while it is still unclear whether the EU is prepared and able to reach the fifth stage of
It also discusses briefly the roles of the EC and EP under the new treaty with regard to the incorporation of the member states.
In this paper I will critically assess the effects of the Lisbon treaty on the
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