The author in the essay tries to determine the extent to which “new war” and “new terrorism” are responsible for state failure or “failed states”, and to do this a clear definition and understanding of all the three terms is essential…
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"Nation-states exist to deliver political goods-security, education, health services, economic opportunity, environmental surveillance, a legal framework of order and a judicial system to administer it, and fundamental infrastructural requirements such as roads and communications facilities to their citizens. Failed states honor these obligations in the breach. They increasingly forfeit their function as providers of political goods to warlords and other non-state actors. In other words, a failed state is no longer able or willing to perform the job of a nation-state in the modern world".( )
This means that a failed state is characterized by certain indicators like non-existent safety and security for citizens, crumbling health care, education, infrastructure, and economy. This sort of situation can give rise to "emerging anarchy" where :
"Failed states" can be viewed as a problem of "emerging anarchy" where organized groups that lack many of the attributes of statehood must pay attention to the primary problem of their own security. In a state of emerging anarchy, or whenever the internal balance of power shifts, questions of control become pre-eminent. This strategic environment can cause hostile groups to fear extinction and yield to mob violence.
In a failed state where the lack of a central agency to provide law and order gives rise to warring factions struggling to fill the power vacuum, state failure is involved in a vicious circle with the outcomes of "new war". The term "new war" took on a new meaning after the events of September 11, but in fact, the term had already been coined in the 1990s by Mary Kaldor, who went on to explain her theory in magazines like The nation in November 2001:
These new wars have to be understood in the context of globalization. They involve transnational networks, based on political claims in the name of religion or ethnicity, through which ideas, money, arms, and mercenaries are organized.....In the new wars, the goal is not military victory; it is political mobilization. Whereas in old-fashioned wars, people were mobilized to participate in the war effort, in the new wars, mobilizing people is the aim of the war effort, to expand the networks of extremism. In the new wars, battles are rare and violence is directed against civilians. The strategy is to gain political power through sowing fear and hatred, to create a climate of terror, to eliminate moderate voices and to defeat tolerance. And the goal is to obtain economic power as well.
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The two issues destroy the pillars of the society, potentially destroying inter community and intra community relations. For several decades, the fight against these two issues has been of great concern to media. This war on drugs and terrorism began actively in the twentieth century when the two issues began to significantly affecting the societal setup in various communities.
The author of the text looks closer at the definition of two types of terrorism. To be precise, the traditional terrorism which existed before the Cold War was specifically identified by specific responses to problems by groups outside of the norm. On the contrary, in modern terrorism, the choice of weapon is the nuclear – biological – chemical terrorism.
Police officers command authority, and they exercise their duties promptly irrespective of whether an individual respects or dislikes the authority. After all, they are just doing their job. Therefore, the public must be aware that challenging this authority has its consequences.
This does not certainly denote that terrorism is more dangerous compared to how it was before; rather, the critical factor in weighing up the threat set by terrorism is whether its use is strategic. The main distinction between new terrorism from the old happens to be a modern structure, a modern personnel, together with a modern attitude toward violence.
The reforms include: expansion of Medicaid to include people in the lower income bracket to enjoy health services, to lure employers to provide health insurance to their workers, offer credits or loans to moderate income earners to pay for their health
However HRM encompasses elements with the aim of going beyond previous concepts. Pay management is an important framework within HRM and it is now a performance related rather than job related system. It can be
The mayor announced that the rules and the criteria pertaining to the use of the card, which was established by Local Law 35 in July would be necessary to apply for the card. The card will ensure free membership for over 30 cultural institutions in New York (Khurshid). The card will be in use from the beginning of 2015.
Whatever the definition that seems to fit the concept of marriage, the main point is that it brings two different individuals together who commit to stay with each other and even possibly multiply and bring forth
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