This paper presents theoretical and concrete explanations for the contemporary transformations in the international system brought about by culture and rights claims; the analytical band created by the notions of culture, identities, rights, justice…
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Extract of sample "Transforming the International System: Culture, Identity, Rights, Justice, and Islamic Diversity"
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The contemporary period is characterised not of insignificant growth and decline, and changes, but of deviation from the past. Yoshikazu Sakamoto (1994) defines the contemporary period as a new age requiring major changes. Rey Koslowski and Friederich Kratochwil (1994) claim that the Cold War’s aftermath represented a ‘transformation’ of the international order, a system change. An entire vocabulary has raided the discourse. ‘The borderless world,’ ‘interdependence,’ ‘the global village,’ ‘new millennium’, and ‘globalisation’, and others, indicate that we have crossed the threshold, or are crossing the threshold, of a new age or period where in modern-day issues, institutions, traditions, and knowledge of international relations are basically dissimilar from their forerunners.6 However, mainstream terms, although suggestive of aspects that are distinct, do not take the place of thorough inquiry and analysis. Absent in all of this assertion of newness is an agreement not simply on what has transformed but as well as on how we can differentiate insignificant change from major change, occurrences from changes, and development or demise from new structures. The academic issues are concrete and theoretical alike. Culture ‘Culture’, prior to its anthropological representation, denoted refinement. Cultural anthropologists have revised the notion of culture to encompass not only the educated and urbane elite, but to everybody. According to Clifford Geertz, “Culture... is not just an ornament of human existence but... an essential condition for it... There is no such thing as a human nature independent of culture.”7 Thus, all human beings are cultured. Yet in spite of this, it appears...
This research aims to evaluate and present the field of International Relations. It is in the brink of a revolutionary theoretical restructuring certainly because change appears to be ever-present in the modern-day world. However, there is no theoretical explanation of it since there is no agreement on the ‘meaning’ of change, or how it is recognised. This is bizarre, as key schools of thought debated over contradictory perceptions of the human state. Definitely, it is logical to assume that the remarkable debates among IR scholars have been inherent assumptions about the nature, possibilities, and outcomes of change. Alongside other aspects that tell apart the different arguments and schools of international theory, ‘changeability’ has been a key point of contention. However, there is more than merely transformation in theoretical perspectives. Ever more, IR theorists are arguing about deep-seated changes. The contemporary period is characterised not of insignificant growth and decline, and changes, but of deviation from the past. The field of International Relations has commonly disregarded culture as appropriate or important to its interests. The most dominant types of research have investigated relations among states that depend on prosperity and power. The existing realist perspective of IR, although toned down by neorealist revisions, are fixated with matters of abilities and conflict viewed as issues of ‘political economy’ or ‘security’ due to the dominance of self-governing state actors. Therefore, IR’s history is ruled by conflicts and peace negotiations.
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