Photons are created when electron move from inner energy levels to outer energy levels, when an X-ray collides with an electron in the high energy level, the electron is ejected and leaves a vacancy. The atom becomes excites, for it to de-excite, an electron from the outer ring,…
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gher than that of the photon attraction for the jump to take place from K-shell to the L-shell, loosely bound electrons from L moves into the K-shell to replace the ejected electron. When a lot of high incident energy are directed to an atom, many electrons are emitted and forms the x-rays.
Bremsstrahlung is the process of slowing down primary radiatin; X-ray is produced by radiations when electrons are retarded or decelerated2.. The radiation becomes intense and attains higher frequencies with increase in energy of bombarding electrons. The colliding electrons shifts electrons from high-energy shell to low energy shells, the rapid replacement by electrons from outer shells create a clearly defined x-ray. The curve shown below was produced by analysing the nature of radiation produced by bombarding electrons from four distinct energy levels against a tungsten target. The graph is used to relate the intensity of x-rays emitted and the wavelength for accurate x-ray photographing.
The figure above shows X-ray spectrograph when copper is used as the target material, the intensity of the photon have linear relation with the wavelength. The intensity rises to peak then starts to slope downwards; high accelerating voltage causes the peak to rise sharply, as shown by Kp, Kα, LP and Lα.
X-ray tube functions as energy converting system that converts electric energy into x-ray radiation and heat. Heat3 is the undesired product of the process; the conversion takes place in x-ray tube. The components of x-ray tube includes
The higher the amount of current the higher the intensity of x-rays emitted since more of electrons are displaced from the high energy levels. In the case above, 5mA produces much lower intensity of X-rays as compared to 100mA since the rate of electron displacement is high in the first case characterized by the high peak of 100mA current4.
b) Attenuation by photoelectric effect result from interaction between Photons and Matter. Photons are
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2. When jumping from a tree to the ground, the person moves at constant acceleration hence constant force. On hitting the ground, the person experiences an opposing force from the ground causing the body to lose momentum within a short time interval, hence need for more force leading to pain.
That is, these rigid bodies do not ever squeeze, stretch or twist. However, we are certain that this do occur in reality. This makes up our research problem because we need to find an explanation for this concept. We shall do this by looking into the concepts of strain and stress.
This essay analyzes that spherical aberration also occurs in the Electron Microscopes when electrons passing through the side of the lens are refracted greater than those passing along the axis.2 (Lam, 2009); while Diffractive aberrations are brought about by the deviations from geometrical optics caused by the wave nature of light.
The above micrographs represent a Secondary electron image (SE) and a Backscatter electron image (BSE) of the same region of an asbestos sample.The SE image appears more three dimensional than the BSE image. The cluster of fibers at the center in the SE image appears more rounded, while the one in the BSE appears flat.
(Belloni et al, 2005)This theory briefly states the following 1. Energy comes in tiny but distinct units and is never continuous. 2. The particles forming the energy unit acts as particles and waves. 3. The motions of these particles are haphazard. 4. The position and momentum of a particle cannot be measured at the same time.
The formation of carbonate rocks is affected by dissolution and is important in creating secondary porosity. Similarly compaction and cementation are critical to carbonate rock formation especially for the loss of porosity. Before cementation and compaction, other processes such as bioturbation and burrowing also affect carbonate rocks.
Images in TEM are obtained by focusing an electron beam on the specimen. The electrons are absorbed, transmitted, scattered or backscattered. Depending on the kind of image required by the operator, either the transmitted electrons (called direct beam) or the scattered electrons (called diffracted beam) is selected.
(b) Make a similar sketch and draw in the vector representing the change of velocity Δv = vB – vA. Use trigonometry to obtain the magnitude |Δv|. (Some useful construction lines are shown dashed in Figure 1b.) Hence determine the
However, they are hardly used since their mechanical advantage (MA) is always less than one. Therefore, the force required to do work is more than the force that is being moved. Example of class 3 lever is a broom because the fulcrum is on one end,
QUESTION ONE Photoelectric effect Photoelectric effect is the process by which electrons are emitted from the surface of a photosensitive material when hit by light incidents. The intensity of the light energy determines the kinetic energy of the produced photoelectrons.
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