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Surface modification to control stem cell differentiation in vitro - Essay Example

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Surface Modification to Control Stem Cell Differentiation In Vitro Introduction Stem cells are a kind of biological cells that are detected in all sorts of multicellular organisms, that can differentiate along with dividing through mitosis into several specialized types of cell and that have the capability to self-renew to create more stem cells…
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Surface modification to control stem cell differentiation in vitro
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Download file to see previous pages The stem cells within a developing embryo can differentiate into all sorts of specialized cells (known as pluripotent cells), while they can also sustain the normal turnover of revitalizing organs, such as skin, blood, or intestinal tissues (Keller, 1995). (National Institute of Health, 2001) It is getting more and more apparent that stem cells are extensively sensitive to their surroundings and react to prompts rendered by, hardness in two (2D) and three-dimensional (3D), chemistry, topography and culture. Surface modification involves changing the surface of an object by bringing chemical, biological or physical characteristics distinct from those detected originally on the surface of that object. In biomaterials, the surface modification performs a substantial role in ascertaining the consequence of the interactions of biological-materials. The surface of a material can be customized by using a particular modification in the surface of material to improve adhesion, cell interactions and biocompatibility. Accordingly surface modification is critical in the designing and development of new medical devices and biomaterials. The principle for the surface modification within the biomaterials is thus to continue the fundamental physical characteristics of a biomaterial while changing only the outmost surface to regulate the bio-interaction. In case such kind of surface modification is appropriately accomplished the functionality and mechanical properties of the device will remain unaffected, however, the bio-response associated to the device-tissue boundary will be modulated or improved. These surface modifications can be accomplished by utilizing mechanical, physiochemical or biological methods (Ratner, 2004). Objectives Stem cells are amazing cells, having both the abilities of differentiation to adult somatic cells and self-renewal in-vitro and in vivo. They possess various characteristics and advantages that can be coupled with the surface modification techniques to revolutionise healthcare applications and drug development. Stem cells provide a consistent and limitless furnish of physiologically applicable cells from formalized pathogen-free origins for practical applications like drug discovery, replacement therapies, toxicology studies and disease modelling (Roy, 2010). (National Institute of Health, 2001) Controlling Stem Cell Differentiation and Lineage Commitment The eventual purpose of bioengineering of stem cells is to become able to recognize and perhaps control the lineage commitment and differentiation of stem cells in vitro. Once this objective is attained, a huge number of therapeutic applications can be visualized. For instance one such application could be the production of different kinds of neurons in order to treat the injuries of spinal cord, Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease. Similarly the development of the muscle cells of heart for patients who have suffered heart attacks can also be imagined. Moreover, the production of pancreatic cells relevant in the secretion of insulin-secreting can also be considered to treat those suffering from Diabetes (Type I), along with the production of stem cells of hair follicle to treat some specific kinds of baldness. Complete Organ Generation These bioengineering techniques could also ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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