Surface Modification to Control Stem Cell Differentiation In Vitro Introduction Stem cells are a kind of biological cells that are detected in all sorts of multicellular organisms, that can differentiate along with dividing through mitosis into several specialized types of cell and that have the capability to self-renew to create more stem cells…
Download file to see previous pages...
The stem cells within a developing embryo can differentiate into all sorts of specialized cells (known as pluripotent cells), while they can also sustain the normal turnover of revitalizing organs, such as skin, blood, or intestinal tissues (Keller, 1995). (National Institute of Health, 2001) It is getting more and more apparent that stem cells are extensively sensitive to their surroundings and react to prompts rendered by, hardness in two (2D) and three-dimensional (3D), chemistry, topography and culture. Surface modification involves changing the surface of an object by bringing chemical, biological or physical characteristics distinct from those detected originally on the surface of that object. In biomaterials, the surface modification performs a substantial role in ascertaining the consequence of the interactions of biological-materials. The surface of a material can be customized by using a particular modification in the surface of material to improve adhesion, cell interactions and biocompatibility. Accordingly surface modification is critical in the designing and development of new medical devices and biomaterials. The principle for the surface modification within the biomaterials is thus to continue the fundamental physical characteristics of a biomaterial while changing only the outmost surface to regulate the bio-interaction. In case such kind of surface modification is appropriately accomplished the functionality and mechanical properties of the device will remain unaffected, however, the bio-response associated to the device-tissue boundary will be modulated or improved. These surface modifications can be accomplished by utilizing mechanical, physiochemical or biological methods (Ratner, 2004). Objectives Stem cells are amazing cells, having both the abilities of differentiation to adult somatic cells and self-renewal in-vitro and in vivo. They possess various characteristics and advantages that can be coupled with the surface modification techniques to revolutionise healthcare applications and drug development. Stem cells provide a consistent and limitless furnish of physiologically applicable cells from formalized pathogen-free origins for practical applications like drug discovery, replacement therapies, toxicology studies and disease modelling (Roy, 2010). (National Institute of Health, 2001) Controlling Stem Cell Differentiation and Lineage Commitment The eventual purpose of bioengineering of stem cells is to become able to recognize and perhaps control the lineage commitment and differentiation of stem cells in vitro. Once this objective is attained, a huge number of therapeutic applications can be visualized. For instance one such application could be the production of different kinds of neurons in order to treat the injuries of spinal cord, Alzheimer’s disease or Parkinson’s disease. Similarly the development of the muscle cells of heart for patients who have suffered heart attacks can also be imagined. Moreover, the production of pancreatic cells relevant in the secretion of insulin-secreting can also be considered to treat those suffering from Diabetes (Type I), along with the production of stem cells of hair follicle to treat some specific kinds of baldness. Complete Organ Generation These bioengineering techniques could also
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“Surface modification to control stem cell differentiation in vitro Essay”, n.d.)
Retrieved de https://studentshare.org/physics/1478998-y-surface-modification-to-control-stem-cell
(Surface Modification to Control Stem Cell Differentiation in Vitro Essay)
“Surface Modification to Control Stem Cell Differentiation in Vitro Essay”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/physics/1478998-y-surface-modification-to-control-stem-cell.
Interestingly, adult individuals retain some pluripotent cells, from which cells for replacement of damaged tissues can be derived. Thus, fibroblasts, muscles, red blood cells, or nerve cells can stem from a pluripotent stem cell upon initiation of specific physiologic conditions (National Institutes of Health, 2009).
Right after the scientific community discovered potential advantages of stem cell research, there was an effort made to ask funding from the government. However, from the past stem cell research received rejection from the Federal Government and one indication of it was withholding of financial support from the state (US Congress, 2011, p.8665).
/ electro-galvanizing 16 3.5 Sherardizing 16 3.6 Metal/alloy-rich paints 16 3.7 Mechanical platting 17 4 List of References 18 Table of Figures Figure 1: Schematic diagram of a nitriding process. 6 Figure 2: Schematic diagram of a laser carburizing setup 7 Figure 3: Diagram showing carbonitriding using vacuum method 9 Figure 4: Iron-nitrogen phase diagram 10 Figure 5: Diagram showing the principle of flame hardening 11 Figure 6: Surface hardening of steel with induction hardening 12 Surface Hardening of Steel Engineers in the building and construction industry have used steel over to develop structures over the years.
For this reason, a healthy ovarial follicle development is essential part of a successful pregnancy. The actual formation of the follicle antrum can trigger some rearrangement in the blood vessel network (Zimmermann et al., 2003). In line with this, Kaczmarek et al.
There is almost no area of medicine that will go untouched by this revolutionary research. As a person who comes from a family that has been impacted by hereditary, late-onset Parkinson's, the possibility that my grandchildren may be freed from the fear of this disease gives our family great optimism.
The author discusses ethical and moral arguments of using embryonic stem cells. Arguments of groups or sectors opposing the use of embryonic stem cells revolve around the destruction of life because they consider the cell in the embryo as not just a simple cell but life itself or the beginning of a human being.
Science and technology has developed so much that in the recent years scientists hope to use these cells to develop new tissues, treatments and potentially even organs for transplanting into a patient. First and foremost argument made by the scientific community is that human stem cell research is said to promise new life changing treatments and possible cures for many devastating diseases and injuries, such as Parkinson's disease, diabetes, heart disease, multiple sclerosis, burns and spinal cord injuries (Young 2-16).
l is a type of cell that has the ability to divide or multiply indefinitely in culture and become any one of more than 200 different types of tissue cells in the body, such as muscle cells, blood cells, nerve cells and even new teeth. In the recent researches scientists hope to
arch for the wellbeing of human since it believes that stem cell research can find answers to some of the genetic diseases and other serious diseases like cancer, heart problems etc. For example, around 30,800 annual leukemia cases are reported in USA including 10,800
According to the report there are a lot of ethical issues surrounding the use of stem cells in research and treatment. There are two types of stem cells as outlined by the American Medical Association and these include adult stem cells as well as the embryonic stem cells. These stem cells can be transformed into any type of cell.
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Surface modification to control stem cell differentiation in vitro for FREE!