Parallel imaging is a family of techniques that often take advantage of spatial information in phased-array of radiofrequency coils in reducing the acquisition times in the magnetic resonance imaging…
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Parallel imaging techniques were not commercially available until recently. They are on the verge of being explored in clinical applications. As has been widely cited, fundamentally, their potential clinical application involves either reduction in the acquisition time or improvement in spatial resolution. Improvements in the quality of images can be realized by reducing the single-shot spin echo sequences, and the fast spin-echo’s train length. Recent studies have hinted that parallel imaging is quite attractive for both vascular and cardiac application and proves more valuable as a 3-T body. Recent studies have shown that magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be devoted for establishing means of increasing the acquisition speed. It is worth noting, therefore, that impressive gains have been realized in an effort to make MRI more effective in its application. This paper seeks to provide an overview of fundamental parallel imaging concepts while illustrating on potential clinical applications. In this paper, merits, demerits of parallel imaging, as well as the comparison between SENSE and GRAPPA as parallel imaging technique would be emphasized. ...
Moreover, it has an advantage of not being able to alter the contrast behavior of the imaging sequence underneath (Boesiger, 2002). Described as one with the ability to decrease the time required to perform the image sequence, it causes an increase in the resolution provided there is a specific time measured or be able to perform the two (Boesiger, 2002). For instance in cases where a patient experiences acquisition time exceeding his/her breath-hold capacity, The Parallel imaging can help in addressing this issue through reducing the patient acquisition time by factor 2 or even greater Figure 01. (Glockner et al. 2004) Figure 01. The Improved visualization of segmental renal arteries in SENSE IMAGES. IN case, the patient was initially short in breath with difficulty in suspending the respiration for a standard acquisition time. The use of Parallel imaging helped reduce acquisition time from 19s to 10 seconds (Glocker et al, 2004). For the Parallel images that are used in spiral scanning and EPI, they have a faster redouts, which often help to reduce the phase error that often result from BO motion or inhomogenity (Griswold, Jakob, 2002). Through this it help mitigate the T2* decay effect. In this case, motion effects, as well as T2 decay can be reduced and can be reduced when RF echo trains apply. Within the image product, such an advantage can lead to reduced susceptibility, motion artifact, as well as in mitigating of the T2/T2* blurring (Hahn eta l. 2003). In this case, Parallel imaging helps in reducing motion artifact, alongside diminishing the venous contamination, in particular for regions in which there happens to be rapid venous return. For instance, in carotid and renal arteries (figure 02) (Glockner et al. 2004) Figure
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