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EPI in MRI - Assignment Example

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EPI in MRI Name Tutor Course College Date Parallel imaging is a technique that has been used widely in the current clinical applications. Its explorations are at a rise. This is because it has many advantages over the other techniques that are used in magnetic resonance…
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Download file to see previous pages On the other hand, PI also has some demerits. Parallel imaging requires hardware to like multi-channel receivers and multi-element coil system. Parallel imaging also is restricted to certain SNR since not all protocols are best suited to it. This paper will discuss these advantages and disadvantages of using parallel imaging in the clinical applications. This paper will also discuss how these merits and demerits have affected the way they are used in the clinical applications. Advantages of parallel imaging Parallel imaging encourages increased spatial resolution (Jack, 2013, p.5). When parallel imaging is applied with reduction factor, MR acquisition which is not accelerated is required in reconstructing an image data set that has the same geometry and spatial resolution without using acceleration. When this raw data is reduced, the total scan time is reduced. Furthermore, it leads to an increased spatial resolution. To increase temporal resolution, the acquisition time to be reduced also. This aspect is very important in dynamic MRI. It helps in restricting total scan time by the physiological constraints for example the duration of breath-hold. This is made possible due to the increase in the spatial resolution caused by the parallel imaging (Schoenberg, Dietrich & Reiser, 2007, p.174). The aspect of increased spatial resolution has made parallel imaging to be used in abdominal MRI (Jack, 2013, p.24). Using conventional scans that takes 2 breath-holds of about 10-20s has led to use of motion artefacts by patients who cannot hold their breath for long. To prevent this problem, parallel imaging has been used because it will only use one single breath. This will make liver exams more feasible. This is helps in achieving perfume images that has high resolution (Schoenberg, Dietrich & Reiser, 2007, p.175). Parallel imaging has reduced motion artefacts. PI techniques were developed to increase scanning velocity. It was also realised that the techniques could be used to reduce artefacts. This effect was applied in the diffusion-weighted imaging. This is made possible due to the positive side that shorter scan time causes. Motion artefacts affect MRI that has long scan times. To eliminate this problem, parallel imaging is used to shorten the acquisition times. The advantage of reduced motion artefacts has led to the improved image quality (Schoenberg, Dietrich & Reiser, 2007, p.176). Image artefacts and blurring are caused by the relaxations that occur on the echo-train readout. If the echo-train is shortened, the signal decay will be reduced. This will lead to high image quality. These aspects have been applied in the lung MRI. The lung MRI, HASTE (half-Fourier-acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo) is used. The lungs have low proton density. They also have low motion and this has made the lungs very difficult in imaging them. To solve this problem, HASTE has been applied for the lung imaging. Parallel imaging is used in the HASTE and it helps in reducing the in echo spacing. This reduction in inter-echo spacing leads to an increase in resolution and small vessels in the lungs can be detected (Jack, 2013 p.22). Figure 1.0: It shows how parallel imaging has been used to improve image quality in lungs (source: Heidemann et al., 2003). Parallel imaging ...Download file to see next pages Read More
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