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Summary for two articles - Essay Example

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Summary of Climate Change 2007 Synthesis Report The synthesis report includes an assessment carried out by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change of three Working Groups and provides an integrated view of climatic change that is the last part of the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report (AR4)…
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Summary for two articles
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Download file to see previous pages The general increase in the temperatures has had significant effects to the environment. The increase in temperatures has had several effects, which the report has outlined and discussed. The rise in sea level has been due to increasing global temperatures, with the level rising at the rate of 1.8 mm/yr since 1968. This is a result of thermal expansion, melting of glacier and ice caps and polar ice sheets, creating a worrying trend to the world. Increased warming has also been the cause of decrease in snow and ice cover in both northern and southern hemispheres. Increased temperatures have also led to increase in precipitation especially in eastern parts of North and South America, northern parts of Europe and northern and central parts of Asia. However, there has been a report of decrease in precipitation in Sahel, Mediterranean, southern Africa, and parts of Asia. Another indicator of changing climatic conditions is the increase in warm days, warm nights, and a decrease in cold days and cold nights. Intense tropical cyclone activities have also significantly increased in the north Atlantic since the 1970s, although there is no substantial of such increase elsewhere (Metz 22-24). Causes of Climatic Changes Greenhouse gas and aerosols concentration, changes in land cover and solar radiations are responsible for alterations in the energy balance of the climate system. Greenhouse gas emissions have increased significantly in the last few decades and especially from 1970s. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most important greenhouse gas emitted by human activities, with the biggest contributor being burning of fossil fuels. Methane (CH4) is another greenhouse gas that which comes from agricultural activities and use of fossil fuels. Both carbon dioxide and methane gases contribute significantly to increase in global temperatures significantly. The last 50 years have witnessed increase global temperatures due to increased greenhouse gas emissions (Metz 198). Impact of Projected Climate Change Evidence highly supports mitigation policies on climatic change and related sustainable development practices on greenhouse gases will keep an upward increase over the next few decades. This emission, the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, has projected to 90% in the 2000 to 2030 period. The report points out that fossil fuels will contribute the largest amount of the greenhouse gases. If the emission of these gases remain at the current rate or increase even with a minute percentage are likely to cause more damages and higher temperatures than those witnessed in the 20th century. This means that forest cover, snow and ice cover will reduce significantly, while the sea level will keep rising until the point when these trends will change. The acidity of the ocean is likely to increase, posing a threat to the aquatic life, and these changes are likely to affect human life more than they will affect other systems for example reduced agricultural production increasing areas affected by hunger. Adaptations and Options of Mitigation A variety of options to curb the increasing climatic change is available, but the only best way to change this is the reduction of the vulnerability of the climatic change. However, a number of barriers, costs, and limitations, that has yet to be evaluated. Societies have been on the front in trying to manage the impact of climate changes. Additional measures to reduce these ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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