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Scientific advances on Cloning - Research Paper Example

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This essay describes that the birth of a sheep named Dolly in 1996 was a milestone in the history of scientific research.Dolly was not born the natural way but was cloned by using a cell extracted from another adult sheep. Mammals had been cloned before but only by using embryonic, not adult cells…
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Scientific advances on Cloning
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Download file to see previous pages The Scottish scientist Ian Wilmut of the Roslin Institute, along with his colleagues, announced on February 23, 1996 they had cloned a sheep by using a ground-technique. The method involved transplanting genetic matter from an adult sheep into a hollowed-out egg, an egg that had its nucleus removed. “The researchers fused the adult udder cell with an (egg) that was ready to be fertilized, but taken from a different sheep. The scientists had previously removed the nucleus from the (egg) using an electrical current to fuse it with the udder cell.” (Barnes, 2012). This sequence instigated cell division. The resulting embryo was then implanted into another sheep who acted as the surrogate-mother. The secret to this method’s success was making the nucleus of the donor’s udder cell “silent” so it would quit performing as it was originally intended and then reprogrammed it to act as an embryonic cell. That embryo would become Dolly; a sheep with three “mothers” involved but only related biologically to the one that donated an udder cell. Consequently, Dolly is an exact genetic reproduction of the donor-cell sheep.Previous cloning experiments that used embryonic cells created a being that was the identical offspring of two parents instead of being an exact genetic duplicate of just one adult. Science successful copied a mammal from one parent for the first time. For nearly half a century, the system of relocating a nucleus from a somatic egg cell using nuclei from non-human embryonic cell continued. It was demonstrated that, in theory, up until the birth of Dolly that genetic material contained in somatic cells could maintain the potential to guide development of a healthy and fertile adult mammal. Scientists had thought once cellular differentiation materializes, this procedure would be reversible, able to change into another type of cell. However, until Dolly was born, the ability to do so was unproved. “The demonstration that nuclei from cells derived from an adult animal could be reprogrammed, or that the full genetic complement of such a cell could be reactivated well into the chronological life of the cell, is what sets the results of this experiment apart from prior work” (Di Bernadino, 1997).
From the mid-‘80’s scientists frequently cloned mammals, specifically cattle and sheep, from embryonic cells but the cloning of Dolly was the first time an animal developed to maturity by using a somatic cell nucleus from a single animal. This innovative method of cloning included three new developments: “ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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