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Social Thought and Social Change - Assignment Example

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The paper "Social Thought and Social Change" presents views of different philosophers and scientists on key concepts of classical perspectives and stages of development. Among them are Kant, Max Weber,  Jesus Mosterin, Adam Smith and his view on labour division, Emile Durkheim and many others,…
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Social Thought and Social Change
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Download file to see previous pages Scientific methods became the main key to understand the world as opposed to the church and gained a privileged position in society.
On the other hand, Adam Ferguson (1783) was another intellectual who saw human progress as a rejection of predestination. Enlightenment was a pioneer of the human rationality as the source of knowledge and rejected previous authorities such as the church or custom.
Lately, Turgot (1750) stated that progress covers the whole culture including institutions, economy, and society. The key motivation of enlightenment was progress which provided improvement of the world, society and human. The development of science and technology would lead to economic evolution which would finally improve the quality of life of human beings.
Immanuel Kant (1797) saw progress as a transition from barbarism to civilization. His political and social philosophy emphasized the idea of freedom through education. He argued the importance of the education of human beings toward the enlightened culture. Kant defended freedom as an innate right of the humankind and he said that moral law cannot be based upon the happiness of the citizens. According to him, freedom is the equality of humankind in every subject like income, power, and mental ability. His arguments support the basic notion of Enlightenment based on the reason as opposed to religion.
It was not surprising that Enlightenment led to progress since it opened a new era in human development. It made humankind understand that the basis of solving problems and moving ahead relies on the reason and science which depend on concrete and physical facts.
2. Every change in history is a result of a cause and effect. Throughout history, major changes happened in the societies that affected the political, economical and social infrastructures. Those major changes are called stages of history. For example, Karl Marx (1818-1833) defined himself as materialist and interpreted history as the history of class struggles. According to Marx, material conditions were the determining factor of a society in terms of creating class conflicts and inevitable changes. In addition, changes in the economy would lead to changes in superstructure such as politics, law, religion, and philosophy. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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