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Philosophical Issues - Assignment Example

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The paper "Philosophical Issues" states that a maxim is what the agent believes is his reason to act.  Maxims should be chosen as though they should hold as universal laws of nature.  Kant’s formula for the universal law is "Act only on a maxim that you can to be a universal law."…
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Philosophical Issues
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Download file to see previous pages A good will itself is the only thing that has no limits to its goodness; it is always good.  It is good in itself because a goodwill is good (while qualities stemming from a good will are good because they are from the good will).  Actions and qualities can only be good if the person using them is using them with goodwill. Goodwill is good in of itself because it does not depend on something else to be good; it truly IS good. Kant argued that the source of the good lies not in anything outside the human subject, either in nature or given by God, but rather is only the good will itself. A good will is one that acts from duty in accordance with the universal moral law that the autonomous human being freely gives itself. Kant explains that the autonomy of the will is the capacity of the will to be a law to itself because the will is the agent through which the maxim of an action can become a universal law.
2. Kant thinks that many virtues, such as courage, resolution, self-control, are not good in themselves. Not even pleasure is good in itself. Why? Summarize his argument against the intrinsic value of these things.
Many virtues are not good in of themselves because they are only good if they are done with a good will. Without a good will, they may be done for “evil” purposes, or other reasons that are not for good.
In every area of life, instrumental reasoning is undertaken in pursuit of agents’ chosen ends: these choices orient and require determinate means-ends reasoning. Choices may variously endorse or defer to self-interest, religious dogma, established ideology, community ‘values’ or some version of self-development. Even those who propose an account of human flourishing or happiness as the foundation and context for moral reasoning do not escape this arbitrariness, given that they lack an adequately determinate account of human happiness or flourishing. If one is motivated by happiness alone, then had conditions not conspired to align one's duty with ones own happiness one would not have done one's duty. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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