Nobody downloaded yet

David Armstrong, 'Universals as Attributes' from Universals: An Opinionated Introduction - Term Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Name of of Professor Course Date of Paper Argument against David Armstrong’s ‘Universals as Attributes’ from “Universals: An Opinionated Introduction” David Armstrong’s Universals as Attributes hold a proposition that the universe exists and that once this postulate is accepted the proposition that they may have varying attributes at certain degrees…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER98.4% of users find it useful
David Armstrong, Universals as Attributes from Universals: An Opinionated Introduction
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"David Armstrong, 'Universals as Attributes' from Universals: An Opinionated Introduction"

Download file to see previous pages As elements of particulars resemble closer with one another, identity becomes stronger; hence, two particulars become one and resemblance becomes an identity (109). In this paper, this argument is negated with the supposition that two different universes cannot be identical because they do not resemble completely as they have different elements. Armstrong’s Arguments Structural Universals Armstrong emphasizes in this idea that universals that resemble one another are complex universals and that they have common elements. These are also called structural universals. He further explains that they overlap due to common or identical parts. The more universals overlap, the more they resemble one another (120). Structural universals are considered to have parts according to Armstrong (122). These have non- metrological composition whereby it is possible that there are two can contain similar and simple elements. Hence, he redefines structural universals as having elements or constituents instead of parts. If this kind of universal has the appropriate parts, it they will overlap in a mereological manner. Chemical elements for instance overlap completely. Butane and isobutane can totally overlap because they have a similar element which is carbon (Pautz 110). Universals are Instantiated Aside from these, he also presented other arguments in his book regarding universals as attributes. He holds that all universals are instantiated, which means that any name can be substituted by variables. For instance, when a word has meaning, there is something within the actual world that corresponds to that particular meaning (Magalha?es 307). Plato and Socrates, two of the earliest and most notable philosophers of all time believe in the opposites. They believed that uninstantiated universals exist because objects need to correspond to a particular something or object in the world so that it is to be believed to have meaning. However, there are also things in the world that are considered to have meaning even though they do not actually exist (Pautz 110). Say, for example, the unicorn. It does not exist, but people are able to identify the properties of a unicorn even if it is just a myth. Therefore, they believe that uninstantiated universals like the word unicorn exist. This was obviously negated by Armstrong (120) insisting that the standards in this world are the only ones that have a property and meaning. A unicorn cannot have properties because it exists outside of the states of affairs (Pautz 109). Negative, disjunctive, and conjunctive properties Another argument is that negative universals do not exist because it is something that does not have any mass (m). Armstrong (122) also rejects disjunctive properties because they neither have the properties of mass (m) nor charge (c). However, he considers conjunctive properties as different from the other two properties. He argues that conjunctive properties have both charge (c) and mass (m) properties which are capable of having some things similar that can be factors to consider for identity. In addition, the fact that these properties have some things in common will give way to a great possibility of explaining how universals with conjunctive property can affect other universals (qtd. in Mulligan 30). States of affairs Since Armstrong (109) believes in the existence of properties and relations, he ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“David Armstrong, 'Universals as Attributes' from Universals: An Term Paper”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/philosophy/1494373-david-armstrong-ychuniversals-as-attributesyie
(David Armstrong, 'Universals As Attributes' From Universals: An Term Paper)
https://studentshare.org/philosophy/1494373-david-armstrong-ychuniversals-as-attributesyie.
“David Armstrong, 'Universals As Attributes' From Universals: An Term Paper”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/philosophy/1494373-david-armstrong-ychuniversals-as-attributesyie.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
CHECK THESE SAMPLES - THEY ALSO FIT YOUR TOPIC
Henry Armstrong
...Henry Armstrong The boxer Henry Armstrong is a part African American who made a for himself that is legendary in boxing. His skill places him as the second best boxer of all time, creating a legacy that has spanned the decades since his time. Born of a mixed race father and an Iroquois Native American woman, his ancestry represents all aspects of the American racial experience. However, because of the social grouping and methods of determining race within the early twentieth century, he has been termed an African American Athlete. At one of the Hollywood Legion Fights, in front of a crowd that represented the Hollywood celebrities of the era, he managed an impressive knock-out, leading acting legends...
5 Pages(1250 words)Research Paper
Definition of Cultural Universals
... Definition of Cultural Universals Cultural universals are the common features and characteristics used in the study of cultures. These characteristics help in comparison, contrasting and identifying a culture, making it unique. These features occur in all cultures and explain the human cultural behavior. The human instinct directs behavior, but different cultures exhibit this behavior in different ways. Dance is a cultural universal found in almost all cultures. With the different reasons behind, its performance, dance has received mixed reactions from cultural perspectives and religious as well. Historical controversies behind dance persist despite scholars and researchers efforts to heal the havoc. Dance falls in the category... of...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper
Louis Armstrong: The Jazzman
...?Louis Armstrong: The Jazzman Choosing a recording definitive of Louis Sachmo Armstrong may be an impossible task. He is known as the most influential person on American Jazz, one of the truly American genres of music. He was also involved in blues, swing and ragtime, pop and other sub-genres. Armstrong invented “scatting”, singing nonsense syllables instead of the written words of songs, and a very difficult style. More than any of these, Louis Armstrong brought his music, and that of many other great artists, to every corner of America and around the globe (Riccardi, ). Jazz was invented by African American slaves, and the term originally meant “sex”, but eventually...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
The Role of Typological Universals in SLA
...structural principles as your native tongue will ensure you make numerous grammatical, syntactical and vocabulary errors. Research into Typological Universals 'aims to establish the limits within human language'.2 Study into this subject sees the world's languages almost as a single organism with various overlapping areas between the languages closest to them in 'roots' as well as 'universal links' with all other world languages. No matter how diverse, all languages are connected by common principles - these are Typological Universals. In the introduction to Typology & Second Language Acquisition, Anna Giacalone Ramat stresses how 'a basic connotation of typology is...
8 Pages(2000 words)Essay
Aristotelian Universals and Platonic Universals
...existing, namely, Types or Kinds, Relations and Properties. Conflict of Universals: Conflict of universals or problem of universals is quite a long debated issue among the philosophers. The basic point of argument remains the same whether the universals exist or not. There has always been an attempt to ' "account for the phenomenon of similarity or attribute agreement among things." Whether a table made of rock or a stone both are similar or both have attributive agreement, having the common characteristic of hardness. This problem has given birth to two different disciplines in philosophy, namely, Realism and Nominalism. The...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay
Politeness systems: culture specific or universals
...Sociolinguistics POLITENESS SYSTEMS: CULTURE SPECIFIC OR UNIVERSALS What do we mean by 'politeness' Using examples drawn from specific languages, discuss the extent to which the politeness systems of different cultures reflect politeness universals, and the extent to which they are culture-specific. In the diverse world we live in , as human beings we try to refine ourselves through our behavior. In my essay, I am going to focus on the aspect of politeness-what do we mean by the term politeness, where do we find politeness in specific languages, cultures reflecting politeness universals, and the extent to which they are culture specific. Some of the...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay
Opinionated final paper-
...John Q. Doe English 344 8 May 2000 Duyfhuizen on Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress” The speaker of Andrew Marvell’s “To His Coy Mistress” clearly addresses his poem to a female reader. Throughout the poem, the speaker seems to be wooing a somewhat unwilling lover. In his critique of the poem, Bernard Duyfhuizen reads the poem from the female perspective, interpreting the poem as a love poem that goes beyond adulation into obsession. He analyzes the speaker and determines that any female reader would interpret the intensity and urgency of the lines as an “egoistic assault” (Duyfhuizen). While critics throughout time have often read the poem as a representative of the carpe diem theme, the speaker seems to step beyond the seize... Q. Doe...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Women and Cultural Universals
...Women and cultural universals Summary of the article Cultures have been a great hindrance to the welfare of women, even under circumstances where they are struggling to survive. Indian culture is one classic example, where the Indians fail to allow their women to work, yet they need to survive in the shortage of resources, such as food. Metha Bai is such woman who finds herself in a complex situation, where failure to go out and work may mean her death and that of her children, yet going out to work will result to her being disowned, abused and assaulted by her in-laws (Nussbaum, 302). The case is the same for most women throughout the world, where women are restricted from good health and flourishing by the similar...
2 Pages(500 words)Book Report/Review
Can Beauty be in more than one object at one time Explain. [universals]
...Can Beauty be in more than one object at one time? [Pick the The beauty is difficult to define due to the fact that beauty depends on personal likes and dislikes. Augustine questions if we find things beautiful because they make us happy, or whether we get happy because we find a certain thing eye catching; he chooses the second (Augustine, 1953). An individual may say that beauty is in perfectly symmetrical features and another person might differ by saying that beauty lies in a good heart. Any quality of a thing or person that may attract can be defined as beauty of that thing or person. Since there is no particular definition of beauty then it is not impossible to find beauty in two objects or person at the same time... Beauty be in more...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Louis Armstrong
...Jazz music Jazz music is a music genre that originated in the United s during the formation of popular independence songs. It was formed during the 19th and the early 20th century in the European American and African American parentage of music and performance orientation. Jazz has been for over a hundred years and puts to use some styles like ragtime and blue notes that makes definition of Jazz a bit difficult. It also incorporates styles like features of European harmony, polyrhythms, swung notes, improvisation and syncopation. This has made jazz to be considered Americas original art forms. Louis Armstrong was born on August fourth 1994 in the New Orleans state. He was born from a poor background in Battlefield a...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Term Paper on topic David Armstrong, 'Universals as Attributes' from Universals: An Opinionated Introduction for FREE!
Contact Us