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Philosophy - Assignment Example

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In Hume’s Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Cleanthes offers an argument for God’s existence that has come to be known as the “Argument from Design.” …
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Download file to see previous pages This argument is structured around an analogy. Identify what is being compared in this analogy and explain why Cleanthes believes he is justified in this comparison (Hint: Support Cleanthes position by pointing to some relevantly similar characteristics between the two analogues). Philo offers a rebuttal to Cleanthes argument that is based on the analogical structure of Cleanthes’ argument. What is this rebuttal (Note: You need not recreate Philo’s entire argument; a description of how to evaluate an analogical argument and the problem Philo sees with Cleanthes’ argument will suffice)? Finally, I built upon Philo’s rebuttal to Cleanthes using the theory of evolution. Why does evolution present a problem for the “Argument from Design”? An Empiricist philosopher David Hume in his “Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion” justifies the presence of God via rational truths like death, birth, illness, healing mechanism and spiritual being of living beings. He firmly believes that humans accept the rationality of an idea/theory only when they experience it. Hence, the belief mechanism is always supported by realism. Hume gathers enough evidence for his readers to identify the presence of God via his attributes in the universal facts. ...
Simultaneously, the intellectual capacity (divine intellect) of the developer God cannot be measured, as he has endowed humans with limited intellect, who can comprehend their beliefs on the bases of their experiences. Moreover, he also differentiates between impression and ideas which develop the theory of belief. However, several phenomena like life after death are a belief which requires experience and in such a scenario humans can only rely on provided notions of different religions. Hence, one accepts orthodox notion of life after death according to his understanding or acceptance of such facts according to his invisible faith. Humans cannot evaluate, debate or weigh religious notions on the bases of their intellectual comprehension as God has provided humans with limited intellect (an attribute God encircles himself) through which they can only understand fewer signs of his being. Yet, this is the attribute (intellect) which is similar to him that brings humans to a level higher than the other living beings he developed. The skeptic Jewish philosopher Philo Judaeus, denies the design/ machine analogy Cleanthes presents. He bases his argument against it and on the fact that universe or any entity on it does not depict the true nature of God (Hume & Stanley, 5). They are his creations/ innovations, but his attributes cannot be assumed through them. They are mere signs of his presence, his attribute like infinity, immensity, eternality, astuteness and aptness are few qualities which are only his. Therefore, Philo argues that to assume God’s nature from his creations is an unrealistic idea. Moreover, he argues that if universe is a ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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