Name: Professor: Course: Date: PHILOSOPHY 1. Plato I: The Apology of Socrates As asserted from the history of Greeks, Plato was taught by Socrates but not at any given time did he write about him. In this regard, any information we retrieve about Socrates has emanated from Plato and other philosophers that have written about Socrates…
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From the perspective of ethics and politics, this philosophy is the basis of the right behavior, and on an anthropological aspect, they form the platform of Plato’s dualism. Moreover, they pave way for him to be able to illustrate the immortality of the soul. Despite the philosophy being educative, it also propagated some social controversies amid of Socrates and other philosophers and also with the society at large. This is narrated in “The Apology of Socrates”, where Socrates is accused before the court of Athens as he is perceived as a great danger to the city. The reason being he was thought to be an atheist and a corruptor of the youth. Socrates refutes these allegations and endeavors to show that he was on the due course of carrying out a divine command to ascertain the nature of indisputable wisdom. In defending himself against the allegations, Socrates points out on some essential philosophical concepts, such as the nature of wisdom, the distinction amid of knowledge and belief. It can also be noted that, Socrates harbors strong religious belief, but he is not aware about that. In terms of the crucial problems encompassing Socrates philosophy, the apology seems to carry more it is concerned with the Epistemology and ethics. 2. Plato 11- the Republic As the republic unfolds, Socrates narrates to Glaucon about a conversation that he had earlier experienced with a Thrasymachus. The later had claimed that justice is entirely subjective as a matter of opinion. In simple terms, “might make right”. He was aware that Socrates believed that justice or in other words, morality is not subjective but rather objective, also it’s not a matter of opinion, but it’s rather something that can passed on to and by anyone and used as a measuring parameter. In light of the above, someone in authority can be incorrect about the nature of right and wrong, for the evaluation is outside of anyone’s judgment. The later is what is meant by the term Ethics. On another perspective, Socrates is determined to study about the inner life, the consciousness, or the soul of individuals to see if he can find out what it takes to be a just person. He then finds out that it is not very easy to identify such an aspect, and he goes for another alternative where he decides to have a view at a larger picture. He thus looks at the state, the government and the policy. By comparing between the smaller and the larger units, Socrates believes that this would help hip determine what makes up an individual. By looking at the virtues of the state, Socrates is able to determine them, and thereafter applies his findings to the individual. Conclusively, he finds out what it requires for an individual to be just that is actually to mean that an individual is healthy. According to him, Health is condition that is objectively measured, and thus if justice can be viewed in such a manner, then it is as well objective. In the due course of time, Plato also studies about the nature of just or a healthy state, or what might be referred to as an ideal Republic. 3. Aristotle Aristotle philosophies emanates from his ethics. He has composed voluminous subjects and is basically known for dividing and classifying subjects of study, thereby commencing on what we may think as a scientific study. Some of the things that
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Background of Descartes’ Mind and Body Theory In the scholastic tradition Descartes reacted against it is assumed that the world is as we perceive it. Aristotelian-scholasticism elucidated phenomena in relation to qualities, causes and effects. As regards to this, magnet’s trait or characteristic of attracting iron were stated in terms of the magnet having the quality of 'magnetism'.
The issue of the soul has always been a center of interest not only to the early philosopher but still is controversial until this time because as Glaucon had been surprised by Socrates’ statement, “Haven’t your realized that our soul is immortal and never destroyed?
I have studied Philosophy and Religion formally over the past thirty-five years, becoming intimately familiar not only with how these subjects relate to my life and my career, but with the academic subjects themselves. This narrative will demonstrate the learning I have acquired over years of study, which I believe has enough breadth to be considered in substitution for a college course.
Nevertheless, although the three sources attempt to ask analogous questions, it is essentially their manner of answering these questions that differentiate them from each other. Plato examines the notion that the real world represents an illusion within the allegory of the cave presented in The Republic.
The author builds an argument that nothing in this world including the five apparent senses can be relied upon because of the fact that there is always a possibility that Godly powers of evil demon is disillusioning for the human beings and that is the reason why the humans cannot just believe what they see and think.
This also creates a need of a power which is practiced by the substance of human person in authority. Some of clarification by philosophers or theologians has made it evident that human person can be defined as a relationship between mind and body or soul and body.
The reason is, among many things, one puzzling thing about human nature is its complexity. It would be easier to understand the human nature if we just consider this creature a creature of habit, but it is not
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