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Movement Between Schools of Thought - Essay Example

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Plato and Aristotle There have been many psychologists that have pioneered numerous theories concerning the human condition and what motivates man. Sigmund Freud was among the first to revolutionize psychological theory. However, B. F. Skinner and John Watson furthered the understanding of human psychological theory through development of the behaviorist theory (Boyd & Bee, 2006)…
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Download file to see previous pages Behaviorist theorists believe that human actions are the results of conditioned responses to direct or indirect stimuli and these behaviors can be changed or altered by applying new stimuli that will supplant the old ways the individual is accustomed to (DeMar, 1989). Denouncing mentalistic concepts of consciousness, Watson strongly believed that actions were instinctual reactions involving limited aspects of the cognitive process and biological constraints (Myers, 2008). Based on the theories of Edward L. Thorndike, Skinner designed experiments to test his theory of operant conditioning using rats and proved that behaviors can be shaped and manipulated using various positive and negative stimuli (Myers, 2008). Behaviorist theory was spurned by the growing belief that all behaviors, those of humans and animals, were the result of behaviorist conditioning (Graham, 2010). Psychologists that studied these philosophies developed numerous learning techniques that have been of benefit to educators. References Boyd, H. & Bee, D. (2006). Adult development. Boston: Pearson. Cherry, K. (2011). B. F. Skinner Biography (1904-1990). About.com Guide. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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