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Compare and contrast two of the following theories of social development: Modernisation theory Dependency theory World systems t - Essay Example

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Topic:  Compare and contrast two of the following theories of social development: Modernisation theory and World systems theory Introduction Modernization theory and World systems theory are different theories which focus on the social development and progress of society and world as a whole…
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Compare and contrast two of the following theories of social development: Modernisation theory Dependency theory World systems t
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Compare and contrast two of the following theories of social development: Modernisation theory Dependency theory World systems t

Download file to see previous pages... In modernization theory various Marxist concepts are explained which is related to the development and underdevelopment of certain countries. Here the social and economical development of countries and inequality existing between countries in relation to technology and other aspects are explained. In world system theory the focus is on the capitalist fashion of world system existing across the globe. This world system has few particular features which it has maintained throughout the centuries that globalization seems like an unfair concept. The modern world system had it beginning in the 16th century where there was an up rise of feudalism in the western world. This demanded innovation of new technology and rise of industrialization which lead the spread of European trade to other parts of the world. According to Hall (2000,pg 23) “Wallerstein’s modern world system is only the most recent transformation of the ancient one “The military strength and transportation of the western world became strong which enhanced the economic ties of countries with each other. There existed an unequal relationship between Europe and other nation which resulted in unequal social development. The overview of Modernization theory The modernization theory is a concept wherein there is a belief that by introducing modernization in agriculture, trade, transportation and technology countries can strengthen their economical and social standard. Modernization theory emphasis that underdevelopment of a country is caused by the incapability and incompetency of the internal working system of it. According to this theory, the country is undeveloped because of the values, beliefs attitude of the people, the government of the country and its policies. A country can be prospering only of it change according to the new demands of its people and tapping the resources of the country in the best possible manner. As per Blaney(2002,pg103 – 137) “Since the putative end of the Cold War, modernization is increasingly remained as a global process— as an expanding liberal zone of peace, a global civil society, or as emerging forms of global governance”. An underdeveloped country can only progress if it changes its mode from violence and uncivilization to democratic reforms. From the view point of modernization theory, the reason for underdevelopment of poor countries is due to the poor allocation of its resources throughout its traditional society. Modernization theory believes that, the development of country lies in the progress of its technology. The more the technological scenario of a country develops with the assistance of other countries the more it gets status of a developed and prosperous nation. This theory was initialized in 1960s to explain the reason for some countries being developed and other remaining under developed. In his book Anderson(2007,pg 252)writes that “Modernization theory sees economic development as a process by which traditional societies become more complex and differentiated” Modernization theory argument on social development The modernization theory argues that old cultural beliefs and norms of the traditional society of the country hampers the modernization of it. As per Sorensen(2001)“ Modernization theory makes the claim that Western capitalist values and practices are the basis for “modernizing” third world countries and helping them become self-sustaining” ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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