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army position, which was to prevent filibusters from launching their expeditions along America’s borders, and shows how officers and men in the army were tempted to join the filibusters in significant numbers. The main point of the article is to show that filibustering was more than just an annoying sideshow which affected combative sections of antebellum society in the south, and that it was then, and is now, an important element in American culture as a whole. Filibusters represent a lingering remnant of the early American notion of “Manifest Destiny” which provided a rationale for conquest of the wild frontiers by brave pioneers and settlers. The established American state had moved on from this to a more organized civil society, within agreed and finite borders, but people clung to their Romantic ideals of conquest. Young males, including serving soldiers, felt hemmed low pay, dull routine and a lack of promotion prospects. Even West Point became a “breeding ground for Manifest Destiny apostles” (p. 876) and this highlights the enduring force of “expansionist fantasies” (p. 879) which provided “heroes, martyrs and villains” (p. 859) in American society. The article thus demonstrates that filibustering was an enduring and widespread phenomenon.
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There were Native Americans in the continent when the first Europeans arrived as shown by Norse settlement in year 985 (U.S. Department of State, 2010). At the time when Europe colonized North America, it was estimated that around 18 million Native Americans were already living in what is now the United States of America (U.S.
The author states that the term Manifest Destiny was first coined by a reputed journalist, John O’Sulliavan. The concept itself had already been prevalent for some time. The first was that the expansion across the continent was something that was readily apparent (manifest), while the second aspect was that the expansion was inevitable (destiny).
The term was originally used by an American news paper editor, John O’Sullivan in 1845 when writing about anticipated annexation of Texas. He stated that it was America’s “manifest destiny to overspread the continent “according to Wisegeek. (1).The idea of manifest destiny heavily influenced the American policy in the 17th century.
At first the Whites were supportive. They saw the need for labor to develop the vast lands of California. They realized that the Chinese were highly skilled, hardworking and ingenious workers. They posed as threats to white workers. This was because the whites could easily replace the striking workers with the Chinese.
The destiny did not incorporate those who were seen as not capable to govern themselves, such as those of non-European decent and the indigenous people. Other factors and political plans also came into play. The increase in population of the initial 13 Colonies and the growth of the United States economy increased the desire to grow into additional land.
Whites continued to encroach on Indian lands, sparking conflicts that eventually forced the Native Americans further and further from centers of white civilization. By the time of the American Revolution, most of the Native Americans in New England had relocated far away from their ancestral homelands, died from foreign diseases, such as smallpox, or through the increasing warfare between the colonists and the natives.
In short, it was an exhortation to expansionism. O’Sullivan opined that the “magnificent domain” should include “its floor shall be a hemisphere – its roof the firmament of the star-studded heavens, and its congregation a Union of many Republics
Thus, colonization and territorial acquisition was deemed justified and was considered somewhat of religious obligation. It became the major reason behind the American expansion, not just of territory but also of influence. It