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Egypt - Essay Example

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Name History and Political Science September, 13 2012 History Of Egypt Egyptian civilization is one of the greatest civilizations of the world, existing throughout the ancient history, known to man, with all its grandeur and zeal. Historians have been able to date its antiquity at around 3, 000 B.C.E, when the land of Nile was a unified empire, geographically made up of two separate valleys i.e…
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Download file to see previous pages... The settlement marked the onset of a more centrally oriented society; the Early Dynasty Period (3100-2686 BCE); the kingdom of the earliest Egyptian king Menes. The Egyptians made use of copper, made architectural and state buildings. Firmly established was the concept of 'Divine Kingship' which persisted in Egypt for around three millennia (Kinnaer, 2012). The Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BCE) was one of the high times of the Egyptian civilization, centered on the God kings; their mummification and the concept of immortality being practiced for the royals and the priests. The first evidence of statue making, painting and writing of annals of important events is also found in this dynasty. This Era in antiquity was followed by collapse of the unified Egypt due to political instability, famine and local violation of temples and then began the First Intermediate Period(2181-2055 BCE) which witnessed much turmoil in shape of low floods. While the Nile floods allowed cultivation of land, Herakleopolitan king Bahr Yusuf restored order and stability in the region. Subsequently the Theban ruler Mentuhotep unified Egypt again and gave way to the establishment of Middle Kingdom (Hassan, 2012). The Theban ruler reestablished central authority, regained hold of southern delta and unified the two valleys to usher the Middle Kingdom(2055-1650 BCE). In this era the Cult of Orisis was attended to and military campaigns were sent, that contributed in regaining Egypt`s lost land. Finest carved reliefs and outstanding monuments like Mentuhotep's mortuary complex are the gifts of this dynasty to the Egyptian history (Meyers, 1996). When the Huskos invaded this land, the Second Intermediate(1650-1550 BCE) Period started which was characterized mainly by decentralization, change of center to Thebes, production of literary and scientific text and administrative records. This era ended after the Theban rulers drove Huskos away from Avaris. Subsequent rise of the Theban ruler Ahmose ushered the New Kingdom (1550-1069 BCE) and the pharaohs commanded unimaginable wealth.The Empire became the most prosperous of all times and at the peak of its power (Shaw, 2000). A number of artistic finds are related to this period including monumental architecture, mortuary temples of Thebes, statuary to honor pharaohs and gods, huge tombs made by cutting rock and various artistic masterpieces created by common individuals of that society. This period spans over five centuries (Logan, 1977). With the death of the pharaoh in 21st Dynasty, began the 350 years duration of politically divided rule; and finally at the end Nubians took over; in the Third Intermediate Period however bronze statuary kept on flourishing (the Third intermediate Period, metmuseum.org). After some years of Nubian rule, Assyrians invaded the land and fought for about 8 years; the Late Period(664-332 BCE) began from here, then the Saite took over and Egypt became its ally. After fall of Assyrians, Babylonians posed the major threat but the Persians conquered Babylon and with it Egypt as well. Alexander the Great defeated the Persians in 332 B.C. The last dynasty to rule ancient Egypt was Nectanebo, and Nectanebo II ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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