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Historical Development of Nursing Timeline Institution Affiliation: Date: Historical Development of Nursing Timeline Science is a field central to many professions around the world. Nursing science particularly is a contributing and enhancing field in nursing practices…
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Historical Development of Nursing Timeline Affiliation: Historical Development ofNursing Timeline Science is a field central to many professions around the world. Nursing science particularly is a contributing and enhancing field in nursing practices. Professional nursing is by great margin backed up by nursing science and nursing theories which give direction to decision making in clinical practices. A close relationship is noted in all aspects of nursing, right from nursing theory, nursing research and nursing practice. In this regard, the historical development and evolvement of nursing and characteristic changes over time become the cutting edge. A timeline is developed hereunder based on the historical development and evolvement of nursing science and practice. 1860 - Florence Nightingale Nightingale considered nursing as both art and science ad prior to this time, she is considered the pioneer nurse theorist. Her bid to improve people’s health through different mechanisms earned her so much respect and consequently led to the improvement of nursing practices in general. According to Nightingale, the environment could be adjusted to favor and thereby promote persons’ health welfare. The need to transform nursing practice under the consideration and use of nursing science concepts necessitated the need to come up with and develop nursing theories. The process of nursing theory development was initiated by Nightingale. Revival efforts followed Nightingale’s work of theory development with successful aspects of this process taking toll in the 1950s. Having the foundation laid by Nightingale, nursing theorists emerged from time to time and worked their way to expand what Nightingale had already started. Since 1950s, the trend has continued to the present time. The functional factor that Nightingale integrated into her efforts was the unification of science and religion in a way that would bring order, meaning, and purpose to human life through some of her radical and lesser known, writings (Chitty & Black, 2007). In this pursuit, she protested against women prejudices and sought to promote nurses’ status across all nursing practices. 1952 - Hildegard Paplau Interpersonal Relations Theory is highly associated with Paplau, an instructor in the psychiatric nursing practice. Nursing science and the profession can be related prior to this period. That is, therapeutic relationship was termed an interpersonal process through a thorough analysis of the relationship that should characterize nurse-client interaction. Theories of nursing science and theories of professionalism are linked to strike an optimal point for nurse-client relationships. According to Paplau, nursing refers to an interpersonal process of therapeutic interactions between an individual who is sick or in need of health services and a nurse especially educated to recognize and respond to the need for help (Chitty & Black, 2007). 1955 - Virginia Henderson Development of nursing practices had taken a successful position by this time. Nursing theories, theorists, guidelines and conduct of stakeholders in the nursing sector and the health industry at large were fully mobilized in a bid to promote population health domestically and internationally. The year 1955 saw Henderson emphasize that patients needed to be independent if their progress during and after illnesses was to remain positive. She argued that with patient independence, there would be no delays in after hospitalization progress of patients. In other words, patient independence would only add up to the welfare of patients, during and after hospitalization. This further advanced nursing practices since an additional factor into the practice meant an improved efficiency and effectiveness of the nursing practice in the light of promoting good health for the populations. 1960 - Faye Abdellah Faye is associated with the nursing theory that came to encompass personal welfare in almost every aspect of life. In other words, Faye developed a nursing theory that considered other personal aspects other than just healthcare. Faye Abdellah’s nursing theory advocated for that care that would meet physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual needs of the client (Zerwekh & Claborn, 2006). On the same note, this care was not bound to leave the client worse off but instead, it was intended to improve the personal welfare and make it better off over time. In this regard, nursing science, practice and the underlying profession was influenced by external factors and disciplines that general determine personal and social welfare in general. Faye Abdellah’s nursing theory brought in aspects of religion, psychology, education, anthropology and social sciences to account for the physical, emotional, intellectual, social, and spiritual needs of the client as earlier mentioned. These needs cut across social, cultural, economic and political factors to determine all-round personal and social welfare of populations. 2004 - Hospice The 21st Century marks a peak development of healthcare intervention and practices in a bid to promote world health. Vibrant technologies and medical interventions have characterized the health care efforts in the 21st Century. On the same note, health complications have taken toll, necessitating even further research and development. Historical development of nursing prior to this time denotes the publication of Clinical Practice Guidelines to oversee Palliative Care quality and nursing practice therein. 2010 - Nursing Stratification Monitoring, regulation and control of healthcare practitioners takes full course. Nurses are required to be registered, public health nurses are monitored and controlled and monitored through well-established mechanisms and bodies, practical nurses must be licensed, nursing assistants are required to be certified by relevant agencies and home health aides are highly emphasized (Zerwekh & Claborn, 2006). Nursing practice has therefore advanced to become a professional practice through nursing and science theories. Theoretical restructuring has been the central point of focus in the transformation of nursing from a nonprofessional practice to an advanced science today. In conclusion, improved patient care and effective therapeutic relationships constitute the focal point of modern professional nursing practice throughout history. The desired outcome is to match nurse-patient attitudes and perceptions in a bid to promote personal and social wellness. References Chitty, K. & Black, B. (2007). Professional Nursing: Concepts and Challenges (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders. Zerwekh, J. & Claborn, J. (2006). Nursing Today: Transition and Trends (5th ed.). St. Louis, MO: W.B. Saunders. Read More
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