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Still there are chances that she had ovarian cancer. This implies that acolposcopy tests needs to be administered. According to Omansky (2010), this test is preferred for in abdominal Pap smear.
Notwithstanding the cancer history and that of other family, the two tests administered, BRCA 1 and BRCA 2, are sufficient since she comes from a family where there are high chances of contracting breast cancer and ovarian cancer.
Neil (2011) is of the opinion that a large number of women-more than 1%-are at a higher risk of developing either breast cancer or ovarian cancer. These statistics further shows that 39% of those who inherit the harmful BRCA 1 gene and 17% who inherit the BRCA 2 mutation will develop ovarian cancer at some point. This means that if Shelby takes the, BRCA 1 and BRCA 2, her vulnerability of developing either breast or ovarian cancer will be mitigated.
It is also notable that Shelby’s uncle died of a proven case of pancreatic cancer. As such, Shelby could also be at risk of developing similar complications. For this case, I would recommend the normal screening to be conducted on the patient. Darity (2008) recommends that when analyzing cases of patients with predispositions of a particular cancer, the case should be taken as a matter of a confirmed case so as to take serious preventive measures. KANDIKO, and BLACKMORE (2012) supports this sentiment by declaring that diabetic patients and healthy individuals with first-degree pancreas cancer relatives are at a higher risk of developing pancreatic
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further investigation reveals that he has an abnormal liver functions. This paper intends to discuss the potential types of malignancies of the liver and their epidemiology, diagnosis that could explain the findings in the case of this patient, information that can be gained from the liver biopsy and imaging, aetiology and pathogenesis of primary liver cancer, and finally possible prognosis and treatment options for this patient.
Philadelphia is located in the northeastern seaboard of the United States of America at the junction of the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers and the largest city within the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (latest 2012 census showed about 1.548 million inhabitants) while it is the second largest city in the East Coast (after New York City) and is the center of economic and cultural activities of the Delaware Valley cosmopolitan area.
It is a city that reflects the best, and at times the worst, that America has to offer. It is a city of tremendous pride and wealth, intermingled with areas of tremendous despair and poverty. It is a city that holds great promise for the future, but is also a city that is potentially headed into a darker period of time that would be best left forgotten.
Hepatitis is categorized as acute or chronic hepatitis. Acute hepatitis is when it lasts less then 6 months and chronic hepatitis is when it persists longer than 6 months ("Hepatitis"). The most common causes of viral hepatitis are the hepatitis A, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses (Frymoyer).
to all infants to prevent infection during childhood and later ages; b) vaccination of adolescents that had not previously received the vaccination; and c) immunization of all adolescents and adults who are at increased risk of being infected (“Hepb” 2013). HBV vaccination
country such as Delaney (2013) argue that irresponsible sexual behavior is the leading cause of spread and infection of Hepatitis B in America, especially in Philadelphia state. For instance, nearly 62% of the Hepatitis B cases diagnosed within the state in 2013 emerged because
Hepatitis is one of the diseases suffered by many people worldwide whose causes vary with the type. Normally, viral hepatitis is divided into three sections including hepatitis A, B and C, and these types are determined by laboratory tests. The symptoms and the respective
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