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Neuroleptic malignant syndrome is no exception since it is a lethal and rare mental disorder (Varcarolis and Halter, 2010, p. 331).
According to Keogh and Doyle (2008), Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is the idiosyncratic reaction to neuroleptic medication. It has serious and adverse effects on individuals that may result in death. This disorder occurs when patients: are under neuroleptic medication regardless of the duration of use, use antipsychotic medication and patients will exhibit signs and when patients use antidepressants. As observed, majority of patients shows signs and symptoms of NMS after two weeks of commencing treatment antipsychotic treatment.
These symptoms, according to Varcarolis and Halter (2010) are: altered mental status in patients, muscular rigidity in a patients, hyperthermia, fever, urinary incontinence, motor abnormalities such as lack of movement coupled with tremor, and automatic function that is high or low pressure (p. 331).
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome can present a broad range of clinical manifestations that can pose a challenge to early detection. The diversity and complexity of its clinical features may not always be welcomed as it leads to confusion among nurses. In order for the nurse to avoid this, they should be aware of NMS classical features such as muscular rigidity, automatic instability and hyperthermia (Koegh & Doyle, 2008). Instant and proper treatment of this disease is advised. It demands prompt, and recognition of the disorder at an early stage and adoption, and implementation of pharmacological interventions such as the use of dopamine agonist is required. In addition, antipyretics such as paracetamol can be administered to reduce fever. Prompt discontinuation of antipsychotic is also helpful as articulated by Koegh & Doyle (2008).
In addition, symptomatic management of this disorder is also significant. Nurses are required to monitor patients with this disease
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