Rhabdomyolysis - Term Paper Example

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Rhabdomyolysis [Name] [Institution] Rhabdomyolysis Introduction Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome that is usually characterized by the necrosis of muscles as well as the release of potentially toxic intracellular constituents of muscles into the circulatory the system…
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Download file to see previous pages However, the severity of the syndrome normally range from asymptomatic rise in serum muscle enzymes to the presence of life threatening complications associated with extreme electrolyte imbalances, enzyme elevations as well as acute renal injury (Knochel, 2003). Although Rhabdomyolysis is often common among individuals who have suffered trauma or major injuries, the clinical condition has also been known to develop as a response to particular medications, drugs and dietary supplements. This paper discusses the history and physical findings of rhabdomyolysis, the background of the disease, its etiology, pathogenesis, natural history and management. History and Physical Findings of Rhabdomyolysis The patient in this medical case study was a 24 year old female who was displaying symptoms consistent with rhabdomyolysis. The clinical history revealed that the patient had taken statin medications to help lower her cholesterol levels and this resulted into a severe muscle pain. Immediately after taking the medication, the patient also suffered from severe muscle weakness, extreme muscle aching throughout her entire body and the production of dark colored urine. Although the dose of statin dose taken was not high, the patient had also taken another drug known as meofibrozil(Lopid) which could have aggravated the condition((Baxter and Moore, 2003). On the other hand, further inquiry revealed that the patient normally uses nutritional supplements as part of their weight reduction strategies. Confirmatory diagnosis was carried out by using a number of standardized examinations to show the damaged skeletal muscles. Some of the tests carried out included analysis of the patient’s urine, urine myoglobin test, analysis of Creatine kinase level and serum potassium level analysis. The treatment of the patient included giving her fluids that particularly those containing bicarbonate in order to prevent the potential kidney damage by flushing the remnants of myoglobin from the kidneys (Baxter and Moore, 2003). Additionally diuretic and bicarbonate medicines were also prescribed. After fluid resuscitation, the patient was transferred to a medical facility where measures were also taken to correct potential electrolyte imbalance in the patient. For example, ECG was obtained to help monitor any likely effects of hyperkalemia or other electrolyte imbalances. Background of the Disease Disease Etiology and Pathogenesis The etiology of rhabdomyolysis is normally broadly categorized into acquired and hereditary causes. Hereditary causes of rhabdomyosis largely consist of enzyme related defects that often result in disorders such as mitochondrial lipid metabolism, carbohydrates metabolism as well as other important inherited disorders such as neuroleptic malignant disorders and hyperthermia. On the other hand, acquired causes generally result from any condition that potentially damages the skeletal muscles such as crush injuries, muscle tremors due to alcoholism, drugs such as statin, cocaine, heroin and amphetamine, extreme exercises, ischemia and trauma (Brancaccio and Lippi, 2010). Excessive intake of alcohol and other commonly abused drugs such as heroin, cocaine and amphetamines has also been known to result in severe damage to skeletal muscles thereby triggering rhabdomyolysis. Additionally individuals who routinely use nutritional supplements and performance enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids may also develop rhybdomyolysis which ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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