Nobody downloaded yet

Electrolytes disorders, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, and hpyernatremia, and how they effect our body system - Research Paper Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Electrolytes disorders, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, and hypernatremia, and how they affect our body system: Introduction: Body fluids mostly comprise of water and electrolytes. Depending on the location of these fluids in the body they can be classified as either intracellular (ICF) or extracellular fluids (ECF)…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER96.3% of users find it useful
Electrolytes disorders, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, and hpyernatremia, and how they effect our body system
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample
"Electrolytes disorders, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, and hpyernatremia, and how they effect our body system"

Download file to see previous pages But any changes in the ECF can have an indirect impact on the composition of intracellular fluid. Electrolyte can be defined as substances that acquire an electrical charge when dissolved in water (Mehtheny 2000). Majority of the body electrolytes include sodium, potassium, calcium chloride and bicarbonate. Each of these electrolytes exhibit different chemical properties. Some of these electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and calcium attain positive charge whereas the latter two electrolytes have a negative charge on them. This is crucial in identifying their properties and calculating anion gaps discussed later. Each of these electrolytes has their unique functions and any changes in their normal concentration in the body fluids can have a significant effect on the functions of different organs of the body. There is some difference in the concentration of different electrolytes in ECF and ICF. The major electrolytes present in the ECF include sodium and chloride. ICF on the other side has potassium as its major electrolyte. Hyperkalemia: Hyperkalemia is a state where plasma concentration of potassium ions exceeds the normal upper limit of 5.0 mmol/L. As mentioned earlier potassium is a major cation of the intra cellular fluid. The normal range of extracellular concentration of potassium is about 3.5-5.0 mmol/L whereas the intracellular concentration may rise upto150mmol/L (Braunwald et al 2008). Potassium is mostly contained within the cells so that it does not have any effect on the outside fluids. But any pathological conditions whereby cell destruction causes the leakage of potassium ions into the ECF may cause hyperkalemia (Schrier 2003). This phenomenon is known as cellular redistribution. Disease conditions such as rhabdomyolysis, trauma and hypothermia are few examples that compromise the ability of the cell to withhold potassium within its membranes. Other causes of hyperkalemia include drug induced hyperkalemia and renal failure. Succinylcholine and Thalidomide are more common drugs that are known to cause hyperkalemia. Decrease renal excretion of potassium as a result of renal failure is also known to raise the potassium levels in the blood. Excess dietary intake of potassium is rarely a cause for hyperkalemia due to body’s adaptive mechanism known as potassium adaptation whereby excess is efficiently excreted by the kidneys and other mechanisms. This increase in the potassium levels clinically manifest in the excitable tissues. Therefore, paresthesias and muscular fasciculation of both limbs are the earlier manifestation of hyperkalemia. It is due to increase duration of polarization as a result of excessive potassium ions partially depolarizing the cell membranes. Heart is arguably the most important organ affected by the disturbance in potassium concentration. Cardiac toxicity of potassium can be evident on the ECG in the form of elevated or peaked T wave (Schrier 2003). Other important impact of hyperkalemia is on the kidneys where it inhibits the reabsorption of NH4+ contributing to metabolic acidosis which further exacerbates hyperkalemia by redistributing the potassium ions out of the cells (Braunwald 2008). Hypercalcemia: Calcium is an important electrolyte that is required in many signaling pathways of neurons. It is also an important constituent of bones and is essential for their strength. There are many other crucial roles that are played by calcium so it is ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Electrolytes disorders, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, and Research Paper”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Electrolytes Disorders, Hyperkalemia, Hypercalcemia, and Research Paper)
“Electrolytes Disorders, Hyperkalemia, Hypercalcemia, and Research Paper”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
How Drones Challenge Our Political System
...How Drones Challenge Our Political System: Ken Allen, the of this article, begins by acknowledging that there is widespread use of drones in resolving conflicts today. He informs the readers that there are adverse effects associated with the continued use of such drones and robotics (Allen 2). According to him, this is an issue that needs urgent addressing. He raises very important questions with regard to the use of drones. For example, he mainly focuses on the aspect of accuracy in targeting terrorists. According to him, the drones are inaccurate and have been associated with a significant number of collateral damage (Allen 3). He challenges the use of far of equipment...
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
Cardiovascular system in our body
...failure entails that the heart is incapable of pumping blood to other body parts, to ensure life sustainability. Moreover, other common problems currently resulting from affected cardiovascular system include; stroke, heart-attack, angina, heart valve problems, aneurysm, and coronary artery disease among others (Burns, Kenneth and James, P.152). Some changes in the system can have sudden effects, whereas some can have dissimilar time frame to show symptoms. In USA cardiovascular disease is a chief death cause, in populations. Any disturbance in our circulatory system can affect our daily routine, and in serious cases, it...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
Food Disorders Related to Distorted Body Image
...counterpart would not appreciate his physical appearance, etc. In the end, the anorexic males would prefer to isolate themselves by becoming sexually inactive. As human beings, we need to eat nutritious food in order to have the nutrients our body needed in order to sustain life. In the case of the individuals with eating disorders, these people intentionally deprive themselves from the nutrients the body needed to maintain its resistance from a long list of possible diseases and health problems such as dehydration, malnutrition, heart, kidney, immune system, and liver problems, infertility, personality disorder, osteoporosis, and...
11 Pages(2750 words)Article
How does the media effect body image in teen girls
...effective technique in doing this is to set an ideal that is nearly impossible to achieve and then selling products that are geared toward bringing someone closer to this ideal, as has been done in the dieting and cosmetic markets. “Women are sold to the diet industry by the magazines we read and the television programs we watch, almost all of which make us feel anxious about our weight” (Jean Kilbourne, media activist, cited in “Beauty and Body Image”, 2009). This is only started with the portrayal of women in the media as “the images of impossibly thin models overwhelm today’s teenage girls.  Unbelievably, most models are thinner than 98 percent of American girls and women” (Bartell,...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
How Globalisation Affect Our Economic System
... How Globalisation Affect Our Economic System? The word ‘globalisation’ is almost interchangeable with the term ‘economic liberalization’. Standing almost at the end of the 21st century, a question may arise in our mind –whether this open economy, a direct product of globalisation, has actually been a boon to the world’s economy including the social and economic scenario. Careful thought brings out the consequences like recession, global financial crisis and other related impacts. However just like every problem has a solution this issue is also addressable. We have come too far to look back at the time of conquests and colonization. Hence globalisation cannot be abandoned for sure, but a multidimensional approach might help... ,...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay
How did psychology effect our personally
...Psychology Effects Psychology has played a huge role at affecting me on a personal level. It has made me understand the different nuances of life in a much broader fashion than I used to think of the same in the past. It is a fact that psychology is something that puts things into proper equations and resolves conflicts. Psychology has been able to change my thinking because it has made alternate arrangements in the wake of trying circumstances. It has altered the ways and means through which value is derived for my respective work tasks (Wang, 2006). It has eased things which are somewhat of an interesting domain for me as well as the ones which were earlier taken up as being difficult and hard to come by with. Its role has been... ...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
Water or Electrolytes
...Water or Electrolytes? No matter how fast and modern life has become, one cannot deny the important of water for our bodies. Energy drinks, sodas, alcohol, soft drinks, tea, and coffee, all contain ingredients that, as the companies promise, are a replacement of water. But unfortunately, that is not true. We need water because we do not want our bodies to become dehydrated. Water regulates body temperature; moistens tissues of mouth, eyes, ears, and other important organs of the body. We also need water to prevent constipation, and lessen down the burden on kidneys by flushing out waste products. Water...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
Body Fat and Eating Disorders Paper
...of heart failure, bone density reduction, loss and weakening of muscles, severe body dehydration increasing the risk of kidney failure, increased fatigue and general body weakness, dryness of skin and hair with hair loss and growth of lanugo all the body in an effort to maintain body temperature (Health Consequences of Eating Disorders, n.d; Eating Disorders, 2011). Bulimia nervosa is characterized by repeated binging and purging which can result in severe damages to the digestive system along with electrolyte and chemical imbalance. These can affect the functioning of the heart and other major organs...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay
How video game effect our live
...staring time affects the eyes and sitting for too long affects our skeletal and muscular system. The psychological effects have been somewhat controversial with both positive and negative effects on our mind. Different games have different effects, violent games like GTA, Mortal Combat, Tekken and many others have a negative effect and productive as well as strategic games help increase the IQ and general knowledge of a child (Carrol). Hence Video games have both harmful and good effect on our daily lives. It all depends on us as to how we perceive these games and try...
3 Pages(750 words)Research Paper
Endocrine System Disorders: Diabetes obesity since it might have caused an insulin resistance in her body (Attia, 2013). Sometimes, social relationships are affected by body appearance. For example, some people may dislike her just because she is obese. She might also be despised as Peter Attia despised one of her patients since he thought that she was responsible for her diabetes and her rotten flesh. Eventually, this stigma might cause Lila to succumb more into unhealthy eating lifestyles because of self-hatred and loss of self-esteem (Collins & Bentz, 2009). In order to avoid this problem, Lila needs to eat healthy like Peter Attia did. She also needs to undergo a Cognitive Behavioral therapy that helps in treating obesity. In this...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Electrolytes disorders, hyperkalemia, hypercalcemia, and hpyernatremia, and how they effect our body system for FREE!
logo footer
Contact us:
Contact Us Now
FREE Mobile Apps:
  • StudentShare App Store
  • StudentShare Google play
  • About StudentShare
  • Testimonials
  • FAQ
  • Blog
  • Free Essays
  • New Essays
  • Essays
  • Miscellaneous
  • The Newest Essay Topics
  • Index samples by all dates
Join us:
Contact Us