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roup of a 1000 children two to five are expected to have the ASD which indicates the rising rate of the disease among the American Children (Autism Spectrum Disorders Health Center, 2013). In the recent years it has gained the attention of researchers and medical professionals due to the increasing complications of Autism Spectrum Syndrome (Rivara, 2006). ASD has some specific signs and symptoms which signify the patients and their level of disease. These include (A Parents Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorder, 2011):
The disorder occurs due to the variation in chromosomes during the process of translocation, duplication and deletion. The most significant way of treating the disease is the active involvement of children in mental activities from an early age (Christian R. Marshall,
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Over the years, the DSM has been revised while some of its sections completely rewritten as new empiric evidence gathered through research continually challenge its existing definitions as well as provide potentially more efficient ways of management (Leventhal, 2012).
INTRODUCTION Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a congenital condition occurring in children more frequently than diabetes, spina bifida, or Down syndrome. The defining characteristics of ASD include 1) labored social interaction, 2) impaired use of words and gestures in communication, and 3) inconsistent patterns of behavior interests, and activities.
The five classifications of autism include autistic disorder, asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder (Volkmar, 2012). ASD, a developmental disorder, affects millions of children in all parts of the world, with the condition noticeable at the age of three years, where there are noticeable signs in the area of interacting socially, impaired and late speech development and slow learning ability.
The characteristic features of the disorder are impairments especially in the social interactions, verbal communication skills as well as general interests in some activities. This could be dangerous especially when not recognized at the early stages as a child may develop adverse complications especially when it is already too late.
Though severity and symptoms vary, in all sorts of autism spectrum disorders, a child’s ability to interact and communicate with others is affected. There is an increasing trend in the autistic children. However, it is not apparent that either it is due to improved reporting and detection of autism or a genuine increase in the cases or both.
The condition includes autistic disorders, pervasive developmental disorder, childhood disintegrative disorder, Asperger syndrome, and Rett syndrome. However, after the publication of DSM-5 diagnostic manual, all the autistic conditions are now merged to ASD diagnosis.
The author states that the condition is a great manifestation of the brain’s inability to develop effectively thereby quantifying the condition as mental. The condition thus affects the development of patients a feature that complicates both its determination in a patient and the successive treatment.
Further recommendations require the clinician to maintain an active role in long term treatment planning and family support as well as support of the individual and clinicians specifically making enquiries about the use of alternative/complementary treatments, and be prepared to discuss their risk and potential benefits.
Understanding the etiology of autism will help to relieve the blame that parents may feel. The diagnosis was also complicated by the fact that although parents may see signs of autistic behavior during the first year of the child’s life, the diagnosis is usually not made until the child is 30 months.
erally, autism affects various aspects of children’s behaviour such as their social interactions and relationships, language and communication abilities, activities and interests. Studies have pointed out that there are number of factors responsible for Autism Spectrum
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