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Their concepts, propositions and definitions represent a methodical viewpoint and provide a framework for standardizing and organizing nursing actions. Recently, there has been a struggle to come up with unique theories in nursing and their contribution to clinical practice and the profession itself. While the nursing knowledge is not unique, the perspective with which the knowledge is applied to the practice is unique. This can be defined and achieved through unique theories of nursing.
Florence Nightingale, a central figure in the history of nursing, was the first to conceptualize the intellectual domain of nursing science. In her seminal work Notes on Nursing: What it is and What is is Not (Nightingale, 1860), she develops a unique theory of nursing, where she establishes the domain of nursing concern, which is independent of the physician’s domain. In developing this theory, she orients the nurses towards the environment of the patients, from the condition of their bandages to the layout of their sickrooms. Some more examples of unique nursing theories include Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming and Orem’s Self-Care Deficit Theory.
Shared theories from other disciplines such as sociological, behavioral and biomedical sciences are theories that have been tested in nursing science though not entirely adopted. They, therefore, do not necessarily advance the practice of nursing. Some examples of shared theories in nursing include theories of social support, reasoned action, self-efficacy, and planned behavior, which have all been developed within the social psychology discipline (Paley, 2006). Bandura’s Social Cognitive theory, for instance, provides an appropriate framework for evaluation of the impact of training programs done to improve nursing competence in palliative care. They are regarded as shared because of their testing in nursing situations.
These are theories made
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