Compare and Contrast Peptic Ulcer Disease and Gastroesophogeal Reflux Disease - Term Paper Example

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Both gastroesophageal reflux disease as well as Peptic ulcer disease and are common disorders of the gastrointestinal that are bound to be frequently encountered within the clinical environment by practitioners in the medical field. It is imperative for one to be able to clearly…
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Compare and Contrast Peptic Ulcer Disease and Gastroesophogeal Reflux Disease
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Compare and contrast Peptic Ulcer Disease and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease. Both gastroesophageal reflux disease as well as Peptic ulcer disease and are common disorders of the gastrointestinal that are bound to be frequently encountered within the clinical environment by practitioners in the medical field. It is imperative for one to be able to clearly distinguish one from the other. This paper is going to contrast as well as compare the two gastrointestinal disorders.
Gastrointestinal disorders affect the gastrointestinal walls by corroding them or in the severe cases perforating them. This corrosion is mainly caused by acids in the body which may tend to be overproduced by the respective organs in the body, due to the body failing to balance its production. There are symptoms and diagnosis that may help identify the type of gastrointestinal disorder that one may be suffering from (Kahrilas 2008).
Peptic ulcer disease is the most common ulcer of an area of the gastrointestinal tract, usually acidic and extremely painful. A higher percentage of these ulcers are caused by Helicobacter pyloris. Epithelial cells in the stomach and duodenum secrete mucus in response to epithelial lining irritation. Gastric and duodenal mucosa exist in the form of a gel layer impermeable to acid and pepsin (Kurata et al 1997).
A physiologic balance does exist between gastric acid secretion and gastro duodenal mucosal defense. Peptic ulcers occur due to disruption of the balance between the aggressor factors and defensive mechanisms. The aggressor factors include NSAID’s, H pyloris infection, alcohol, bile salts, acid and pepsin which allow back diffusion of hydrogen ions leading to epithelial cell injury. Defensive mechanisms include tight intercellular junctions, mucus, mucosal blood flow, cellular restitution and epithelial renewal (Kurata et al 1997).
Signs and symptoms
Symptoms of peptic ulcers include abdominal pain, epigastric with severity relating to mealtimes which manifest three hours after taking a meal. Other symptoms include Bloating and abdominal fullness, water brush, nausea and copious vomiting. Pain caused by peptic ulcers may be felt around the navel up to the sternum, this pain normally lasts for a few minutes although it may potentially last for hours and may worsen when the stomach is empty (Kurata et al 1997).
Diagnosis is mainly established based on the symptoms characteristics. Tests such as endoscopies or barium contrast X-rays help to confirm the diagnosis. An Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is usually carried out on patients suspected to be having peptic ulcers (Kahrilas 2008).
Antacids or H2 antagonists are used to treat younger patients with ulcer like symptoms. Patients taking Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory may be prescribed a prostaglatin analogue to prevent peptic ulcers which happen to be side effects of the NSAIDs. When H pylori infection is present, treatment entails a combination of antibiotics and proton pump inhibitor, occasionally together with a bismuth compound. For perforated peptic ulcers, surgical repair of the perforation is required (Kahrilas 2008).
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
It is a condition that manifests itself through liquid content of the stomach regurgitating into the esophagus. The lining of the esophagus can be inflamed or damaged by the liquid. Acid and pepsin that are produced by the stomach are usually contained in the regurgitated liquid (Kahrilas 2008).
Signs and symptoms.
In adults, symptoms include, heart burn, regurgitation, trouble swallowing and chest pains. In children Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease may be difficult to detect as a result of their being unable to sufficiently describe what they are feeling. In children Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease may cause repeated vomiting, coughing, effortless spitting up, wheezing, inconsolable crying, refusing food and belching or burping (Kahrilas 2008).
The current Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease diagnosis is the esophageal ph monitoring which allows for monitoring of Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease patients in regards to their response to medical or surgical treatment. An EGD is done in the event the patient doesn’t respond well to treatment (Kahrilas 2008).
There exist three types of treatment for Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease, these are;
Lifestyle, this may entail the patient avoiding eating meals two hours before bedtime. Sleeping on the left side or with the upper body raised (Kahrilas 2008).
Medication, pharmacotherapy goals are to reduce morbidity in patients with Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease and prevent complications. Agents used to achieve these include antacids, H2 receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors and prokinetic agents (Kahrilas 2008).
Surgery, surgical treatment for Gastroesophageal Reflex Disease entails wrapping of the stomach, especially around the upper parts which are located near the esophageal sphincter which helps to strengthen the sphincter and prevent acid reflux (Kahrilas 2008).
Peptic Ulcer Disease and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease are disorders of the gastrointestinal walls, though severe if not treated at early stages, they rarely cause deaths. Gastrointestinal disorders can be prevented and in the event of infections, can be treated to full recovery of the patient (Kurata et al 1997).
Kahrilas, P.J., (2008). Gastresophageal Reflux Disease.
Kurata Ph.D., John H. Nogawa, Aki N.M.S., (1997) meta-analysis of risk factors for peptic ulcer; Nonsteroidal Antinflammatory Drugs, Helocobucter pylori and smoking. Read More
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