The most common signs include heartburn, inflammation of the esophagus and acid regurgitation. In order to diagnose GERD accurately, it is important to assess laryngeal thoroughly. Diagnosis of the illness…
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For short-term treatment, PPIs are more effective compared to H2RAs (Karch, 2013). The two drugs act by repressing the production of acid from the stomach. The PPIs drugs reduce but do not prevent the risk of developing ulcers in people taking NSAIDs (Song, Zhu & Lu, 2015).
There is evidence that a dose of 75mg ranitidine and famotidine 10mg helps to minimize gastric acidity for at least 12h at night though it is a lower dose than the one in the prescription product insert. The PPIs are more effective in the prevention of acute peptic ulcer bleeding and ulcer healing. However, a standard dose of H2RAs is efficient in the prevention of NSAID- induced injury such as duodenal but not gastric ulcers (Mejia & Kraft, 2009).
The PPIs are efficient in inhibition of gastric acid production. The commonly used drugs include rabeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole and esomeprazole. These drugs are weak bases that require an acidic surrounding to obstruct H+K+ -ATPase and act as prodrugs. The PPIs also reduce pepsin secretion that acts to minimize mucosa harm. Moreover, the morning dosage of PPIs enhances acid repression that is in contrast with H2RAs that works well at night. The drugs’ effect increase with repeated administration where by day three a steady state happens and the amount of pumps that is inhibited for more than two hours get to 70%. An increase in enzyme recruitment promotes progressive acid suppression. Nevertheless, taking the drugs ‘when required’ does not generate sufficient acid inhibition and does not give a regular clinical reaction.
PPIs and H2RAs should not be used together because of their minimum inhibitory impact. If there is a need for concomitant treatment, it is advisable to provide enough intervals in the administration of the two drugs. The H2RAs are safe to use and can be obtained over-the-counter. However, for elderly patients in the intensive care unit suffering from renal and hepatic difficulties, it
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Gastrointestinal diseases among the elderly have a high level of importance as individuals are living longer and demographic studies have shown that the next decade will be characterized by a larger number of individuals living beyond the age of 65. This has led to further analysis on diseases affecting this sector of the population.
Schizophrenia: Symptoms and Treatments Schizophrenia is one of the most common forms of mental disorder today. Boyle (2002, p. 3) notes that about 2.4 million Americans are diagnosed with this mental health condition each year. Some researchers have also predicted that one in every 100 people will suffer from schizophrenia in their lifetime.
In the history of medicine the sphere of endocrine researches was one of the primary issues of investigation, as the understanding the essence of interrelations among the cells is of a much importance for all medical and human sciences. Research in endocrine sphere was developing fast during last two decades, and the modern techniques of molecular biology are successfully implemented to cure various diseases of endocrine nature.
Only 10% of the discussion is on the need of antihistamine and referral to GP.
About 60% of the consumers who walks into the pharmacy requesting for analgesics and explaining their symptoms to the pharmacist
Anxiety disorders are caused by numerous factors - psychological, environmental, and biological that interact with each other to influence the development of anxiety disorders. These factors influence individuals who are inherently predisposed to developing mental problems. Disorders are precipitated by stressors or some traumatic life events.
This permits stomach acids to penetratet the sensitive lining underneath, resulting in an ulcer. The chief precipitating factor for an ulcer is the presence of the infection-causing bacterium, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). H. pylori infection is very common, but does
presented by this 50-year old man such as sub sternal pain for the last 5 months loss of appetite and aggravated pain upon eating these are typical signs of chronic gastritis.
Gastritis can be caused by irritation due to chronic emesis, stress, excessive alcohol consumption
The victims feel empathy but also feel a need to be recognized for being empathic. This leads to significant problems and poor relationships, social encounters both at work and at school. In some cases, one may not realize that they have personality disorders because
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