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Is there evidence of any conflict of interest that might introduce bias into the way the study is designed or the way the result is viewed? Do the authors have any potential financial gain from the results of the study?
The theories, frameworks, models or concepts that may…
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Find this article and answer following questions- The article name- A process of decision making by caregivers of family members with heart failure
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A Process of Decision Making by Caregivers of Family Members with Heart Failure The essay aims to addressthe following questions to wit:
1. What is the purpose of this research?
2. What is the research question? This may be implicit or explicit.
3. What theories, frameworks, models or concepts may have influenced the researchers choice of a research design? If this is not stated specifically, List any that are implied.
4. How do the authors describe the design of this study?
5. Determine the classification of this study. Is it quantitative, qualitative or mixed?
6. Is there evidence of any conflict of interest that might introduce bias into the way the study is designed or the way the result is viewed? Do the authors have any potential financial gain from the results of the study?
7. What is the evidence that this journal is peer reviewed? Does the journal have an editorial board?
A Process of Decision Making by Caregivers of Family Members with Heart Failure
1. What is the purpose of this research?
The purpose of the research is to describe decision making by caregivers of patients with heart failure (HF).
2. What is the research question? This may be implicit or explicit.
The research question is explicitly stated. The specific research question is: How do caregivers of family members with HF make decisions?
3. What theories, frameworks, models or concepts may have influenced the researchers choice of a research design? If this is not stated specifically, List any that are implied.
The theories, frameworks, models or concepts that may have influenced the researcher’s choice of research design include the following: the qualitative study of Clark et al. (2008) which examined the perception of patients and informal caregivers about individual and contextual factors influencing willingness to undertake effective HF self-care and suggested that HF knowledge is a potential determinant of outcomes based on the caregiver’s ability to make decision; the three-stage theory which emerged from the grounded theory study of Crist, Garcia-Smith, and Phillips (2006) and examined the process how the 23 Mexican American elders with their caregivers decided to use formal home care service, identified taking care of our own, acknowledging options, and becoming empowered as the decision process involved, and supported the idea that Mexican American family stick to their cultural norms while making difficult treatment decisions; the five-step decision process which emerged from a phenomenological study of nine mothers in Taiwan who shared experience of family interactions and relationships while making decisions about child’s heart surgery indicated that the family experienced psychological distress, role reorganization, and a remodeling of family functioning; and the used grounded theory by Hall et al. (2008) which examined the moral decision making of the wives of patients with life-threatening cardiovascular disease and described the five step process of decision making to include searching, seeking, reflecting, accepting, and decision making (Sanford, Rocchicciolli, Horigan & Hall, 2011, 58).
4. How do the authors describe the design of this study?
The authors describe the design of the study as a qualitative design that uses grounded theory methods.
5. Determine the classification of this study. Is it quantitative, qualitative or mixed?
As stated on the article, the study is classified as a qualitative study.
6. Is there evidence of any conflict of interest that might introduce bias into the way the study is designed or the way the result is viewed? Do the authors have any potential financial gain from the results of the study? Yes, introduction of biases in the study could be possible because of the sampling methodology and data analysis section. The methodology implied that purposive sampling was used in the study as samples were selected based on the relevance to the investigation; for instance, the caregiver had to be related to the patient with HF, provide one activity of daily living, and/or assist the care recipient with two instrumental activities of daily living and not be paid for services. This could introduce biases as purposive sampling does not generate representativeness of the population (Stommel & Wills, 2004, 303). In addition, the data analysis section might also introduce biases because the personal judgments of the encoder were integrated in the analysis as evident in writing impressions and thoughts during analysis. With regards to potential financial gain, the journal is unbiased and has nothing to gain by publishing the results as authors are not related to the publishing company.
7. What is the evidence that this journal is peer reviewed? Does the journal have an editorial board?
Evidences that the journal is peer reviewed include identification by volume and number of journal issues (Vol. 25, No. 1), pages that are numbered sequentially through the entire issue instead of starting over with each issue (p. 55-70), specification in the first page of the dates the manuscript was received, reviewed, and published, and description of the author’s credentials and place of employment. An editorial review board, which is the Springer Publishing Company, was included but the actual reviewers were blinded in the review.
References
Sanford, J., Rocchicciolli, J.T., Horigan, A. & Hall P. (2011). A Process of Decision Making by Caregivers of Family Members with Heart Failure. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 25 (1): pp. 55-70. DOI: 10.1891/0889-7182.25.1.55
Stommel, M. & Wills, C.E. (2004). Introduction: Key Concepts in Sampling. Clinical Research: Concepts and Principles for Advanced Practice Nurses (p. 295-309). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Read More
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