Socio-Cultural Factors Influencing Older Hispanic Women’s Experience with Osteoarthritis.
OA is the most common type of arthritis or joint disease which has higher prevailing rates among the Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks in the United States (Osteoarthritis Action Alliance, 2011). …
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Risk factors for OA includes the act of engaging in tedious manual labor or high-intensity sports activities, age, gender or being born as female, developmental dysplasia, obesity, ethnicity or race, genetic predisposition, inadequate exercise, socio-economic background, joint misalignment, long hours standing and lifting heavy weights (Sulsky et al., 2012; Swift, 2012; Kullie et al., 2011; Allen et al., 2010; Bolen et al., 2010; Lin et al., 2010; McDonough & Jette, 2010). The pathophysiology of OA is marked by a slow degenerative process of the “cartilage, bone and soft tissues that are integral to joints” followed by low-grade inflammation in the articular cartilage (Sulsky et al., 2012; McDonough & Jette, 2010, p. 388).
After conducting a statistical research study with regards to the health-related quality of life among the US adults with arthritis, Furner et al. (2011) found out that the adults with arthritis had worse health-related quality of life as compared to the adults without arthritis. In general, pain at the joints is common among patients with OA (Bolen et al., 2010). Other common signs of OA include difficulty in body movements, stiffness and loss of muscle tone, strength and stamina, poor sleep, fatigue, anxiety, social isolation, depression, financial difficulty, and loss of work (Swift, 2012; Axford et al., 2010, 2008; Hawker et al., 2010). All these factors explain why people who are diagnosed with OA can be restricted in their day-to-day living activities and experience a significant reduction in their quality of life (QOL) due to pain (Axford et al., 2008). OA Depression and Physical Limitation In general, physical limitations or functional limitations is pertaining to a situation whereby a person’s ability to execute a specific mental or physical action is limited (McDonough & Jette, 2010). As explained by Dekker, van Dijk, & Veenhof (2009), activity or physical limitations caused by OA can worsen over time. In fact, failure to treat and manage OA can cause a person to suffer from disability (Luong et al., 2012; McDonough & Jette, 2010; Bosomworth, 2009) and a “progressive decrease in mental health” (Axford et al., 2008). With regards to physical disability, Axford et al. (2008) found out that disability is strongly related to the patients’ inability to cope, severe pain, and increased depression. Basically, all these factors explain why people who suffer from OA pain can experience lower productivity levels at work (DiBonaventura et al., 2011). Based on the National Health and Wellness Survey that was conducted by DiBonaventura et al. (2011), people who are experiencing OA pain are less likely to be employed. In most cases, common contributing factors that can trigger high levels of anxiety and depression include severe pain, limitations or restrictions in the body movements, physical disability, work impairment, and the risk of losing their job (Swift, 2012; DiBonaventura et al., 2011; Axford et al., 2
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