Comparing Nursing Education - Research Paper Example

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Comparing nursing education: China and Poland Introduction Environmental systems around enterprises and professions vary across regions and political boundaries with political, legal, and cultural factors forming bases for the differences. Education system into professions is one of the variables across countries…
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Comparing nursing education: China and Poland Introduction Environmental systems around enterprises and professions vary across regions and political boundaries with political, legal, and cultural factors forming bases for the differences. Education system into professions is one of the variables across countries. Political history, government agencies, and professional organizations, for example, play a significant role in the scope of professional trainings. I, in this paper, compare nursing education system in the People’s Republic of China with that in Poland through exploration of the role of these factors. Political history and development of nursing education: Comparison of Poland and China The history of nursing education in China demonstrates little relationship with the country’s political history. Nursing education in the country has been widely influenced by western countries, with the United States playing a major role while the country’s political system and forces have not played an active role in the profession’s education. The only political influence on the evolution of nursing education in the country is the Cultural Revolution that took place between 1966 and 1976 and stopped a planned registration of nurses into a new program and approval of nursing as an academic program in higher institution by education ministry. Major developments into the current nursing education status are however attributable to American missionaries and healthcare foundations (Xu, Xu and Zhang, 2000). Unlike the nursing education in China, the education in Poland has been influenced, significantly by political transitions in the country. The first nursing school, University Nursing School, was established in 1911 and only took three years before the First World War interrupted its operations and forced its closure. American aids and the Rockefeller foundation facilitated basic nursing education among women after the First World War, a time that Poland gained its sovereignty, and the education was later improved from a one-year program to a two-year program. The Polish government, in 1926, expanded its ministry of health to regulate nursing education. Nursing education was further defined, nine years later, by a parliamentary legislation that stipulated nursing curricula and the duration of a nursing program. The achieved nursing education system however collapsed during the Second World War. Nursing education was then reintroduced, first as a basic six months program for girls then in secondary education before formal trainings at diploma and graduate levels. The “Act on Nurse and Midwife Professions” enacted in 1996 is another political milestone in Polish nursing education as it recommended changes that were integrated into the education system (Sztembis, 2006, p. 104). Government and nursing organizations influencing nursing education: Comparison of Poland and China The passive political role on Chinese nursing education was further extended to governance with no significant role of the government or its agencies in shaping nursing education. A nationwide transition was however reported in the country in 1952 with Ministry of Education’s approval of nursing education at university level but no government agency is recognized for the 1952 restructuring. Nursing organizations also failed to play a major role in shaping the education (Xu, Xu and Zhang, 2000). The Polish government however, through an agency in the Ministry of Education managed nursing education issues from the year 1926 while no nursing organization is recognized for any role in shaping nursing education in the country (Sztembis, 2006). Current system of nursing education: Comparison of Poland and China The current nursing education in China is a mixture of different levels of institutions that certifies a person to be a registered nurse. These include “secondary nursing programs, zhuanke programs and baccalaureate programs” (Xu, Xu and Zhang, 2000, p. 208). The authors identify nursing education at diploma and the university level. The nursing education system is further similar to the system in the United States (Xu, Xu and Zhang, 2000). A similar observation is made over nursing education in Poland with training at different academic levels that include high school and baccalaureate levels. It does not however recognize hospital based training schools and the education system is significantly different from the structure of nursing education in the United States (Sztembis, 2006). Postgraduate (Masters) education: Comparison of Poland and China Nursing education in the countries has postgraduate programs. The Chinese system has a master’s program that runs for three years while the Polish system has a master’s program that runs for two years. The Chinese system that is more consistent with the United States’ nursing education system also has a doctorate program in nursing (Xu, Xu and Zhang, 2000; Sztembis, 2006). Conclusion Development in nursing education had different scopes in the two countries. Nursing education in China developed independently from political forces while nursing education in Poland was highly influenced by political initiatives. The two systems also had different evolutionary roots and structure but are organized into different academic levels up to postgraduate level, an indication that the education systems converge in quality and content. References Sztembis, B. (2006). The past, present and future of nurse education in Poland: Stages, conditions and activities. International Council of Nurses (53), 102- 109. Xu, Y., Xu, Z. and Zhang, J. (2000). The nursing education system in the People’s republic of China: Evolution, structure, and reform. International Council of Nurses (47), 207-217. Read More
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