Testosterone Levels and Male Depression Research Paper Name of of University Introduction It is a widely known medical fact that sex hormones, or gonadal steroids, have psychological effects. A hormonal deterioration may even cause depressive symptoms…
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Almost all vital organ systems in the human body need testosterone to work efficiently hence their functioning is also affected by a decrease in testosterone levels. The overall health of men, especially their psychological or emotional wellbeing, largely depends on testosterone levels. Because testosterone’s serum level lowers as men become older, sexual fervor and strength also lowers, resulting in a higher risk for depressive symptoms. Decrease in testosterone levels can also cause impotence in mean, and this is usually another cause of depression (Grant & Potenza, 2007). Luckily testosterone levels can be diagnosed and treated. Relationship between Testosterone Levels and Depression in Men Some empirical findings substantiate the assumption that testosterone is related to depression. Primarily, cross-sectional research has studied the connection between testosterone levels and development of depressive symptoms. In addition, the levels of gonadotropin in non-depressed and depressed groups have been studied. Moreover, there are quite a few longitudinal studies looking at the testosterone levels throughout occurrences of depression in men (Kaplan, 2012). Basically, one way to understand the effect of testosterone levels on male depression is to study the correlation between testosterone levels and depression in elderly males. Sternbach (1998) examined empirical studies on the natural decrease of testosterone in adult males and discovered an apparent correlation between low testosterone levels and different symptoms of mood disorders, such as bad temper, sexual problems, anxiety, and depression. These natural outcomes of the decrease of testosterone may resemble a mood disturbance in elderly males. This correlation offers indirect substantiation for a relationship between testosterone levels and male depression (Heidelbaugh, 2007). Studies that focus on the effect of testosterone levels on the development of depressive symptoms among adult males have produced varied findings. Yesavage and colleagues (1985) studied levels of testosterone in depressed males and discovered a moderate inverse correlation between levels of testosterone and the degree of depression when the latter was controlled. The hypothesized correlation between degree of depression and testosterone levels was discovered. Another set of studies that substantiates the effect of testosterone on male depression is derived from the application of the testosterone replacement therapy in the treatment of depressive symptoms in men. A number of studies have supported the effectiveness of testosterone replacement therapy in the treatment of depressive symptoms in men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (Heidelbaugh, 2007). Wagner and colleagues (1996) reported that testosterone replacement therapy had a greater positive outcome compared to standard antidepressant treatments in treating depressive symptoms in males with HIV. Even though it may be tempting to search for a hormone-based biological substrate to demonstrate the severity and prevalence of male depression, there are no sufficient or strong indications that testosterone affects the prevalence and degree of depression in males. Treatment research supporting this is carried out with clinically vulnerable males, several of whom also display acute depressive sympto
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States should not be prevented from reserving the doctrine of State liability in cases where implementation may involve substantial modifications to national legislation or where it would create severe confusion in allocating remedies.